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HOMEOSTASIS. Understanding Homeostasis at the Cellular Level. CELL THEORY AND STRUCTURE. C ell T heory. All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism (basic unit of life)

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c ell t heory
Cell Theory
  • All living things are made of cells
  • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism (basic unit of life)
  • Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells (cell division)
history of cells the cell theory
History of Cells & the Cell Theory
  • In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork (dead plant cell walls)
  • What he saw looked like small boxes
  • Hooke is responsible for naming cells
  • In 1673, Leeuwenhoek was first to view living organisms
  • Leeuwenhoek used a simple, handheld microscope to view pond water & scrapings from his teeth
schleiden schwann virchow
  • In 1838, a German botanist named Matthias Schleidenconcluded that all plants were made of cells
  • In 1839, a German zoologist named Theodore Schwannconcluded that all animals were made of cells
  • In 1855, a German medical doctor named Rudolph Virchow observed, under the microscope, cells dividing
  • He reasoned that all cells come from other pre-existing cells by cell division
remember endosymbiotic theory
Remember Endosymbiotic Theory
  • In 1970, American biologist, Lynn Margulis, provided evidence that some organelles within cells were at one time free living cells themselves – this is called Endosymbiotic Theory
  • Chloroplasts and mitochondria were the organelles she pointed to as evidence of this theory
  • Chloroplast and Mitochondria have their own DNA which is different from the DNA of the cell
number of cells
Number of Cells
  • Unicellular – composed of one cell
  • Ex: bacteria, yeast
  • Multicellular - composed of many cells that may organize
  • Ex: butterfly, flower
  • Have a nucleoid region contains the DNA (no nucleus)
  • Have a cell membrane & cell wall
  • Contain ribosomes to make proteins in their cytoplasm
eukaryotic cell
Eukaryotic Cell

Contain 3 basic cell structures:

  • Nucleus (containing DNA)
  • Cell Membrane
  • Cytoplasm with organelles
  • Called the “organs” of cells
  • Very small in size
  • Have specific functions
  • Found in cytoplasm of cell
  • Contain digestive enzymes
  • Break down food and worn out cell parts
  • Inside nucleus
  • Produces the ribosomes that make proteins
smooth rough endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Smooth ER - lacks ribosomes & detoxifies poisons and synthesizes lipids
  • Rough ER - has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORT
  • Site of Cellular respiration – the capturing of energy from food
  • Breaks down glucose to produce energy ATP
plant cell organelles


Plant Cell Organelles
  • Process called photosynthesis occurs here
plant cell

Cell wall

Plant Cell
  • Made of cellulose
  • Found in plant cells
plant cell organelles1


Plant Cell Organelles
  • Have a large central vacuole
animal cell organelles
Animal Cell Organelles
  • Glycogen is stored in the cytoplasm of animal cells for food energy

glycogen granule

animal cell organelles1
Animal Cell Organelles
  • Near the nucleus in an animal cell
  • Help cell divide
what are the basic parts of all eukaryotic cells
What are the basic parts of all eukaryotic cells?

Have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm

Have membrane-bound organelles

Have a nucleus

differences between plant cells and animal cells
Differences between plant cells and animal cells

Animal cells

Plant cells

Relatively small in size

Relatively large in size

Irregular shape

Regular shape

No cell wall

Cell wall present

differences between plant cells and animal cells1
Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells

Animal cells

Plant cells

Vacuole small or absent

Large central vacuole

Glycogen as food storage

Starch as food storage

Nucleus at the center

Nucleus near cell wall