HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
HACCP Definition • A system which identifies, evaluates and controls hazards which are significant for food safety • Developed in early 1970’s in USA for NASA and US Army • Its purpose is to ensure safety rather than detect.
Approaches to Food Safety • Traditional • Inspection • Sampling & Testing • Quality Control • Preventative • Design • Operational Control • Quality Assurance
Traditional Approach Based on: • Inspection • Sampling & Testing • Acceptance or rejection of batches based on test results • Occurs after food has been prepared
Traditional Approach - Advantages • Proven and well understood • Provides quantitative data • Can analyse for trends • Identifies specific causes
Traditional Approach - Disadvantages • Retrospective • Accept or reject whole batch • Can be too late • Measures effects not causes • Spot check • Defective batches can be accepted • False sense of security
HACCP Principles • Conduct a hazard analysis • Identify critical control points (CCP’s) • Establish critical limits for each CCP • Establish CCP monitoring requirements • Establish corrective action to be taken • Establish effective recording procedures • Establish verification procedures
HACCP Working Stages • Define terms of reference • Select HACCP team • Describe the product • Identify intended use • Draw flow diagram of process • Verify flow diagram on site • List all hazards associated with each process step and list preventative measures to control hazards
HACCP Working Stages (2) • Apply HACCP decision tree to each step • Establish critical limits and target values for each CCP • Establish a monitoring system for each CCP • Establish a corrective action plan • Establish record keeping and documentation • Establish verification mechanisms • Review HACCP plan at regular intervals
Critical Limits • Each CCP must have a target value and critical limit • Typical Criteria • Time/temperature • Moisture content • water activity • pH etc.
Monitoring • Scheduled measurement of CCP against target values • Methods to ensure within specification and therefore in control • Responsibilities • Who, when, how to act
Record Keeping • Team members & responsibilities • Product description and intended use • Flow diagram indicating CCP’s • Hazards and preventative measures • Critical limits • Monitoring systems • Corrective action • Record keeping procedures • Verification procedures
Implementation • Key issues • Commitment • Resources • Information • Ownership of plan • Training • Maintenance and review
Benefits • Systematic • Preventative • Targets resources to critical areas - CCP’s • Applicable to all types of hazard • Increased confidence over product safety • Complements ISO 9000 • Increases Scientific basis for inspection • Compliance with “due diligence”