Early Statehood Unit 7 Introduction
Texas Independence • After winning independence from Mexico the new Republic of Texas faced many problems: • The Mexican government refused to recognize the Treaties of Velasco (which gave Texas it’s independence) • The new nation was deeply in debt – and that debt grew significantly during Lamar’s administration • The Native Americans were upset with the number of white settlers moving onto their land • Texas had permitted slavery – this kept the northern states in the US Senate from admitting Texas
Annexation • After winning independence from Mexico in 1836 – many Texans believed that they would immediately be annexed by the US • Remember that most white people living in Texas had come from the US to start a better life • They had left their families behind while they started over in Texas and planned to send for their families once they got settled • When the Mexican government passed the Law of April 6, 1830 those families could no longer come to Texas • So after the Texas Revolution many thought that they would be reunited with their families and become a part of the US
Annexation • James K Polk had ran for president of the US and won on the campaign promise of Manifest Destiny – the idea that the US would spread from the Atlantic Ocean on the east across all the way to the Pacific Ocean on the west coast • Biggest problem to fulfilling this goal was the slavery issue • New states entering the Union would upset the delicate balance between slave and non-slave states
LET’S TAKE A MOMENT… • Discuss in your group What was Manifest Destiny and how did Texas play a part in President Polk’s idea of MD?
US – Mexican War • When Texas was annexed in 1845 the border between Texas and Mexico was in dispute • Mexico claimed that the border was the Nueces River – as it had been before Santa Anna was forced to sign the Treaty of Velasco • Texas and the US claimed that the border was the Rio Grande (which was in the “secret” Treaty of Velasco that ended the Texas Revolution) • The US also wanted all the land between Texas and the Pacific Ocean – which was claimed by Mexico
US – Mexican War • Tensions between the two nations continued and both sides placed troops along the Rio Grande River • On April 24th, 1846 fighting broke out between the two groups • Each side claimed the other was in their territory and that they had been invaded • After almost 2 years of battle the war ended on Feb 2, 1848 when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo • Ended the US-Mexican War • Became known as the Mexican Cession – giving the US the southwestern territories between Texas and California • Paid Mexico $15 million for Texas • Established the Rio Grande as the border between the US and Mexico
Population Growth • The period after annexation in Texas was characterized by rapid population growth • People were coming to Texas from other areas of the US and from Europe • As they came they brought with them their cultural traditions and lifestyles – which explains the diverse culture of Texas today • As more and more people came to Texas the small towns became cities • The largest city in Texas at this time was Galveston
Compromise of 1850 • To deal with slavery issue both sides (those for slavery and those opposed) would have to reach a compromise • Texas had claimed that the Rio Grande was its western border – which ran all the way up to Colorado – which meant that Texas claimed land that New Mexico also claimed • Problem was once again a question of slavery • The 2 sides would have to reach an agreement quickly
Compromise of 1850 • Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky offered a compromise • Texas would give up it’s claim to about (40%) of it’s western territories in exchange for $10 million – which would help Texas greatly because of their debt. • In the Compromise the Texas-New Mexico Boundary Act set the borders as they appear today
EXIT TICKET… • ON YOUR NOTECARD… • Write down one thing you learned today from the notes • OR… • Write down one question you have after taking notes today.