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Specialized instruction in Written Expression: The challenges of Learning to Write

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  1. Specialized instruction in Written Expression: The challenges of Learning to Write Robert W. Frantum-AllenPDU Nov 20, 2012 Session Two

  2. Schedule • December 18, 2012 spelling 101 • January 15, 2013 spelling 102 • February 26, 2013 grammar 101 • March 5 2013 grammar 102 • March 19, 2013 composition 101 • April 2, 2013 composition 102 • April 16, 2013 composition 103 • May 7, 2013 final review

  3. Objectives • How to score the HWT Handwriting Assessment • Interpretation of the Diagnostic Writing Assessment • Handwriting Basics • Handwriting VS Keyboarding

  4. Scoring the HWT Handwriting Screener

  5. Memory 1. Omitting the letter/number is a memory error. 2. Writing an unrecognizable letter/number (like a squiggle) is a memory error. 3. Writing the wrong letter/number (lowercase f for capital F or vice versa) is a memory error. 4. Lowercase i, j without the dot is a memory error.

  6. Memory 5. A letter or number that is reversed/backward 6. A letter that uses wrong size - Oo, Ww, Ss 7. A letter in the wrong place - Pp, y

  7. Orientation 8. Reversals, or backward letters are orientation errors. No orientation error for: 9. Symmetrical letters/numbers. They cannot be reversed and are not scored.

  8. Placement 10. A letter/number (or part) that should be on the baseline but is outside the gray area (more than 1/16” above or below the line) is a placement error. a. Letter/number parts that should be on the line but are above the gray area b. Letter/number parts that should be on the line but are below the gray area Note: Measure questionable placement. Line up the 2nd Grade Placement Tool with the writing line (not the letter).

  9. Sentence 11. Not using a capital to begin is a sentence error. 12. Mixing capital and lowercase letters is a sentence error. 13. Putting too much space between letters in a word (w r o n g) is a sentence error. 14. Putting words too close is a sentence error. 15. Forgetting ending punctuation is a sentence error.

  10. Name You will not mark errors for this category. Instead, note the stage of development. Does the student use: - All capitals (CHRIS) - Transitioning mix (ChRis) - Title case (Chris)

  11. Other Concerns Formation- starting at the bottom and moving up Size- too large for grade level Neatness Speed- too slow and too fast Posture- slumped, feed unsupported, Pencil Grip- awkward grip Helper hand- doesn’t use this hand to hold the paper Other- Cognitive concerns

  12. On-line Scoring System http://www.hwtears.com/hwt/online-tools/screener

  13. Report

  14. Interpreting the Diagnostic Assessment

  15. Context Processor Meaning Processor Phonological Processor Orthographic Processor Why Writing is so difficult! Planning Translating Writing Processing Model Memory Processes short term memory long term memory Processing Speed Transcribing Writing working memory Phonics Holy Crap! Reviewing Grapho-motor Processor Higher-level reasoning: finding evidence, judging perspective, synthesizing or elaboration, having a new idea Self-regulation: revising, employing strategies, setting goals, managing attention, taking perspective of the reader Automatic Pilot

  16. Assessment for Writing

  17. Basic Writing Battery Handwriting -HWT Screener -Rubric Spelling -WtW -Core Phonics -WSC Grammar -TMG Screener - CWS Composition -Rubric -TWW

  18. Assessment for Writing Handwriting (Handwriting without Tears Screener) Alphabetic Principle: Spelling (Core Phonics, Words their Way) Fish Bone Analysis: a process for interpreting the Body of Evidence Developmental Stage of Spelling: Memory: Orientation: Placement: Sentence: # of Orthographic errors on spelling: # of Phonologic errors on spelling: Alphabet Skills: Reading and Decoding: Spelling Skills: Formation: Size: Neatness: Speed: Posture: Pencil Grip Writing Writing CBM CWS: Writing Content: Writing Organization: Writing Style and Fluency: Language Usage: Parts of Speech: Subject/Predicate Identification: Sentence types : Sentence Identification: Syntax CLOZE: Grammar (Writing CBM CWS, Grammar Assessment) Written Composition (Writing CBM with Rubric )

  19. Interpreting Handwriting BOE

  20. Assessment for Writing Handwriting -HWT Screener -Rubric

  21. HWT Report 2nd Grade Expectation is 94%

  22. Assessment for Writing Handwriting (Handwriting without Tears Screener) Alphabetic Principle: Spelling (Core Phonics, Words their Way) Fish Bone Analysis: a process for interpreting the Body of Evidence Developmental Stage of Spelling: Memory: 71 Orientation:67 Placement: 79 Sentence:20 Overall: 59 # of Orthographic errors on spelling: # of Phonologic errors on spelling: Alphabet Skills: Reading and Decoding: Spelling Skills: Formation: Size: Neatness: Speed: Posture: Pencil Grip Writing Writing CBM CWS: Writing Content: Writing Organization: Writing Style and Fluency: Language Usage: Parts of Speech: Subject/Predicate Identification: Sentence types : Sentence Identification: Syntax CLOZE: Grammar (Writing CBM CWS, Grammar Assessment) Written Composition (Writing CBM with Rubric )

  23. HWT Report • Mark • for concern • + for no concern

  24. Assessment for Writing Handwriting (Handwriting without Tears Screener) Alphabetic Principle: Spelling (Core Phonics, Words their Way) Fish Bone Analysis: a process for interpreting the Body of Evidence Developmental Stage of Spelling: Memory: 71 Orientation:67 Placement: 79 Sentence:20 Overall: 59 # of Orthographic errors on spelling: # of Phonologic errors on spelling: Alphabet Skills: Reading and Decoding: Spelling Skills: Formation: - Size: + Neatness: + Speed: + Posture: + Pencil Grip: - Writing Writing CBM CWS: Writing Content: Writing Organization: Writing Style and Fluency: Language Usage: Parts of Speech: Subject/Predicate Identification: Sentence types : Sentence Identification: Syntax CLOZE: Grammar (Writing CBM CWS, Grammar Assessment) Written Composition (Writing CBM with Rubric )

  25. Interpreting Spelling

  26. Assessment for Writing Spelling -WtW -Core Phonics -WSC

  27. WtW Phonological and Orthographic Errors More than 50% after 3rd grade of phonological errors is a concern Spelling Stage of Development Emergent- prek -1st grade Later name- K to early 3rd grade Within Word- 1st to mid 4th grade Syllables and Affixes- 3rd grade to 8th grade Derivational- 5th to 12 th grade

  28. Grading a Spelling Inventory Practice

  29. Grading a Spelling Inventory

  30. Core Phonics 2 + errors on a 5 items tests is a concern after 2nd grade 3 + errors on a 10+ items tests is a concern after 2nd grade

  31. Assessment for Writing Handwriting (Handwriting without Tears Screener) Alphabetic Principle: Spelling (Core Phonics, Words their Way) Fish Bone Analysis: a process for interpreting the Body of Evidence Developmental Stage of Spelling: Within Words Memory: 71 Orientation:67 Placement: 79 Sentence:20 Overall: 59 # of Orthographic errors on spelling: 95% # of Phonologic errors on spelling: 5% Alphabet Skills: 100% Reading and Decoding: 96% Spelling Skills: 100% Formation: - Size: + Neatness: + Speed: + Posture: + Pencil Grip: - Writing Writing CBM CWS: Writing Content: Writing Organization: Writing Style and Fluency: Language Usage: Parts of Speech: Subject/Predicate Identification: Sentence types : Sentence Identification: Syntax CLOZE: Grammar (Writing CBM CWS, Grammar Assessment) Written Composition (Writing CBM with Rubric )

  32. Interpreting Grammar BOE

  33. Assessment for Writing Grammar -TMG Screener - CWS

  34. TMG Check the grade level expectations to determine is this is a problem Parts of Speech: Knowledge Subject/Predicate Identification: Knowledge Sentence types : Knowledge Sentence Identification: Knowledge Helps to determine what to teach

  35. TMG If there are NO grade level expectations then TEACH IT! CLOZE- hints at a processing disorder Higher-level reasoning: finding evidence, judging perspective, synthesizing or elaboration, having a new idea Self-regulation: revising, employing strategies, setting goals, managing attention, taking perspective of the reader Automatic Pilot

  36. Determining the Correct Writing Sequence (CWS) • A correct Writing Sequence (CWS) is a pair of adjacent, correctly spelled words that are acceptable within the context of the written phrase. CWS takes into account punctuation, syntax, semantics, spelling, and capitalization. When scoring CWS, a caret (^) is used to mark each correct word sequence. A space is implied at the beginning of the sentence. • Place a caret (^) between words that are (1)mechanically (spelled correctly, appropriate capitalization, (2) semantically, and (3) syntactically correct; calculate the sum of the number of carets = CWS • There are many rules for CWS! Please refer to page 3 and 4 in the How to Conduct a Writing CBM (yellow) handout

  37. Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Spelling: Words must be spelled correctly CWS 8 CWS 3

  38. Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Capitalization: Beginning of sentences, proper nouns counted, incorrectly capitalized are incorrect CWS 5 CWS 3 CWS 3

  39. Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Capitalization: Beginning of sentences, proper nouns counted, incorrectly capitalized are incorrect CWS 3 CWS 4

  40. Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Punctuation: At the end of sentences, commas not counted unless in a series, where they must be used correctly, other punctuation not counted CWS 12 CWS 8

  41. Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Punctuation: At the end of sentences, commas not counted unless in a series, where they must be used correctly, other punctuation not counted CWS 8 CWS 7

  42. Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Syntax: Must be syntactically correct to be counted. Words that begin with a conjunction are correct CWS 8 CWS 5

  43. Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Semantics: Semantically correct CWS 5 CWS 4

  44. Correct Writing Sequence 15 CWS

  45. Assessment for Writing Handwriting (Handwriting without Tears Screener) Alphabetic Principle: Spelling (Core Phonics, Words their Way) Fish Bone Analysis: a process for interpreting the Body of Evidence Developmental Stage of Spelling: Within Words Memory: 71 Orientation:67 Placement: 79 Sentence:20 Overall: 59 # of Orthographic errors on spelling: 95% # of Phonologic errors on spelling: 5% Alphabet Skills: 100% Reading and Decoding: 96% Spelling Skills: 100% Formation: - Size: + Neatness: + Speed: + Posture: + Pencil Grip: - Writing Writing CBM CWS: Sig. Below Benchmark Writing Content: Writing Organization: Writing Style and Fluency: Language Usage: Parts of Speech: 10% Subject/Predicate Identification: 5% Sentence types: 5% Sentence Identification: 5% Syntax CLOZE: 25% Grammar (Writing CBM CWS, Grammar Assessment) Written Composition (Writing CBM with Rubric )

  46. Interpreting Written Composition

  47. Assessment for Writing Composition -Rubric -TWW Have the child revise their writing the next day

  48. Writing Rubric Intermediate writing rubric is more detailed as greater skills is expected. Goal is to score 3 except for organization, style/fluency/ language use and handwriting in the primary grades k-2

  49. Assessment for Writing Handwriting (Handwriting without Tears Screener) Alphabetic Principle: Spelling (Core Phonics, Words their Way) Fish Bone Analysis: a process for interpreting the Body of Evidence Developmental Stage of Spelling: Within Words Memory: 71 Orientation:67 Placement: 79 Sentence:20 Overall: 59 # of Orthographic errors on spelling: 95% # of Phonologic errors on spelling: 5% Alphabet Skills: 100% Reading and Decoding: 96% Spelling Skills: 100% Formation: - Size: + Neatness: + Speed: + Posture: + Pencil Grip: - Writing Writing CBM CWS: Sig. Below Benchmark Writing Content: 3 Writing Organization: 1 Writing Style and Fluency: 1 Language Usage: 2 Parts of Speech: 10% Subject/Predicate Identification: 5% Sentence types: 5% Sentence Identification: 5% Syntax CLOZE: 25% Grammar (Writing CBM CWS, Grammar Assessment) Written Composition (Writing CBM with Rubric )

  50. Handwriting Basics