Methods of Observation. Almost everyone at one time or another, observes other people. Based on our observations of other people (and also ourselves), we tend to make generalizations about human behavior and human nature.
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Almost everyone at one time or another, observes other people. Based on our observations of other people (and also ourselves), we tend to make generalizations about human behavior and human nature.
Even the most respected psychologists may use their personal observations as a starting point for their research and as a basis for their hypothesis.
Once they start their research, psychologists use more careful methods of observation some of them are:
The careful methods of observation some of them are:TestingMethod:
(Description) several kinds of tests measure different elements of human behavior such as abilities, interests and personality. Psychologists sometimes use psychological tests to learn about human behavior. There are several kinds of tests. Intelligence tests, that measure learning ability; Aptitude tests, measure specific abilities and special talents; Personality tests, are used to assess whether people are socially outgoing or aggressive.
The careful methods of observation some of them are: Case StudyMethod
A case study is an in depth investigation of an individual or a small group. To learn about the people who are being studied, researchers may observe or speak with them, interview others who know them, and find out more about their backgrounds and personal histories.
Longitudinal careful methods of observation some of them are:Method
A group of participants are observed at intervals over a long period of time. Some research topics, deal with how people and other organisms change over time. Longitudinal studies are extremely time- consuming, expensive and risky. There is often no guarantee that participants will remain available over the long time period that they are to be studied.
In this method instead of following a group of individuals over a number of years, researchers select a sample that includes people of different ages. The researchers then compare the behavior of the participants in the different age groups, and then they can compare the groups with one another in order to gain information.
Researchers observe the behavior of people or animals in their natural habitats. This method is also called field study. People often use naturalistic observation in their daily lives without knowing it. That is they observe other people and animals in “the field”, in their natural habitats. In case of people, field studies include home, schools, office buildings, restaurants, any place where people spend time. In naturalistic observation, psychologists try not to interfere with the organisms they are observing.
Sometimes it is useful to observe behavior in a laboratory rather than in the field. This method is called laboratory observation. A laboratory is a place that provides the opportunity for observation and experimentation. Psychologists usually use a laboratory to control the environment of study.
Once psychologists have made their observations, they must analyze and interpret them. One method they use is correlation, which is a measure of how closely one thing was related to the other. The stronger the correlation between two things, the more closer the things are related.