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Nematodes and Tree Fruits. Howard Ferris Department of Nematology University of California, Davis hferris@ucdavis.edu November 4, 1999. female. male. male. female. male. female. Plant-feeding nematodes……. Cause mechanical injury to cells and tissues Cause cell death

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nematodes and tree fruits

Nematodes and Tree Fruits

Howard Ferris

Department of Nematology

University of California, Davis

hferris@ucdavis.edu

November 4, 1999

slide2

female

male

slide3

male

female

slide4

male

female

plant feeding nematodes
Plant-feeding nematodes……..
  • Cause mechanical injury to cells and tissues
  • Cause cell death
  • Modify cell development
  • Modify cell function
  • Disrupt uptake of water and nutrients
  • Alter photosynthate partitioning
  • Create avenues of ingress
  • Predispose plants to other stresses
signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms…..
  • Stunting, slow growth, dieback
  • Chlorosis and nutrient deficiencies
  • Wilting
  • Reduced yield
  • Lack of response to other treatments
  • Root symptoms
    • Root tip stunting
    • Galls at root tip or along roots
    • Lesions on roots
slide8
Migratory endoparasite of
  • almond
  • apricot
  • peach
  • nectarine
  • plum
  • prune
  • walnut
  • grape
  • rose

Lesion nematodes

slide10
Migratory ectoparasite of
  • almond
  • apricot
  • peach
  • nectarine
  • plum
  • prune
  • walnut
  • cherry
  • grape
  • grasses

Predisposes Prunus sp. to bacterial canker

Ring nematodes

slide15

Meloidogyne spp

Root-knot nematodes

  • Sedentary endoparasites of
  • Lovell peach root
  • English walnut
  • Many grape cultivars
  • Many weed species
  • Many cover crops
slide17

Migratory ectoparasite of

  • almond
  • apricot
  • peach
  • nectarine
  • plum
  • prune
  • walnut
  • cherry
  • grape

Virus vector in Prunus sp.

Dagger nematodes

slide19

Migratory ectoparasite of

  • almond
  • apricot
  • peach
  • nectarine
  • plum
  • prune
  • walnut
  • cherry
  • grape

Pin nematodes

management strategies
Management strategies….
  • Planting site selection, non-host rotation
  • Preplant soil disinfestation
  • Clean equipment, water
  • Certified planting stock
  • Rootstock selection
  • Biological antagonists, the soil food web
  • Postplant management
  • amendments
  • nematicides
  • cover crops
preplant disinfestation nematicides
Preplant disinfestation - nematicides
  • Methyl bromide
  • 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone)
  • metam sodium (Vapam)
biological antagonists the soil food web
Biological antagonists, the soil food web
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Nematodes
  • Microarthropods

Consider:

  • Food web maturity
  • Susceptibility to disturbance
  • Indicators of food web condition
postplant management amendments
Postplant management - amendments
  • onion
  • garlic
  • pumpkin
  • rapeseed
  • herbal remedies
  • cover crops and green manures
slide30

A) Ac = Allium cepa, As = Allium sativum, Cc = Coptis chinensis, Ec = Eugenia caryophyllata,

Nt = Nicotiana tabacum, Sa = Sinapis alba.

B) Ac = Asparagus cochinchinensis, Me = Manihot esculenta, Ss = Stemona sessifolia, Zo = Zingiber officinale.

C) Ap = Andrographis paniculata, Gb = Ginkgo biloba, Hh = Hedera helix, Sa = Senna alexandrina.

D) Cl = Coix lacryma-jobi, No = Nerium oleander, Rc = Ricinus communis, Tg = Torreya grandis.

management strategies summary
Management strategies - Summary
  • Planting site selection, rotation
  • Clean equipment
  • Certified planting stock
  • Rootstock selection
  • Preplant disinfestation
  • Biological antagonists, the soil food web
  • Postplant management
  • amendments
  • nematicides
  • cover crops