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Chapter 28: A Period of Turmoil and Change. Burgess/Hornbeck . Chapter 28, Section 1. Demands for Civil Rights. Setting the Scene. August, 1945- G.M of Brooklyn Dodgers, Branch Rickey, wanted to challenge the rule in MLB that required blacks to play in a separate league.

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chapter 28 section 1
Chapter 28, Section 1

Demands for Civil Rights

setting the scene
Setting the Scene
  • August, 1945- G.M of Brooklyn Dodgers, Branch Rickey, wanted to challenge the rule in MLB that required blacks to play in a separate league.
  • Rickey called upon Jackie Robinson to be the first African American in MLB.
    • He wanted Robinson to ignore insults that would be thrown at him.
    • “I want a ball player with guts enough not to fight back.”
setting the scene cont
Setting the Scene Cont…
  • 1947- Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers.
    • First African American to play in major leagues.
    • Rookie of the Year in 1947.
    • 1949- League MVP.
rise of african american influence
Rise of African American Influence
  • African Americans were moving from rural to urban areas in large numbers.
    • Emergence of AA doctors and lawyers who gained influence and became leaders of the community.
    • FDR: number of AA’s in federal jobs increased significantly.
    • WWII: led to a rise in AA population in the North.
      • New ideology for many people.
rise of african american influence cont
Rise of African American Influence Cont…
  • Rise of NAACP: (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
    • Challenged segregation laws
    • Tried to overturn 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case
    • Legal team was greatest asset
      • Thurgood Marshall aka “Mr. Civil Rights”
      • Oliver Hill: higher pay and better educations for AA teachers and students.
brown v board of education
Brown v. Board of Education
  • 1951: Oliver Brown sued Topeka, Kansas Board of Ed. to allow his daughter to attend an all white school.
    • Case reached the Supreme Court.
    • Thurgood Marshall argued on Brown’s behalf
  • May 17, 1954: Supreme Court ruled (unanimously) “separate but equal” was unconstitutional and could not be applied to public school.
  • 1955: ALL schools should move to desegregate.
reaction to brown vs board of ed
Reaction to Brown vs. Board of Ed.
  • Mixed reaction
    • AA’s were pumped up!
    • Many whites accepted the decision
    • Ike, privately disagreed, vowed to obey Supreme Court’s ruling.
    • Southern whites were scared and angry.
      • Resisted desegregation
      • Ku Klux Klan became more active
      • Southern Manifesto was created by Deep South Congress people.
montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • December, 1955:
    • Rosa Parks sat in the front of the “colored” section of the bus.
      • AA’s were expected to give up seat to whites if there were not seats available in the “white” section of the bus.
      • Parks refused
      • Police arrested her and ordered her to stand trial for violation of segregation laws.
montgomery bus boycott cont
Montgomery Bus Boycott, Cont…
  • Civil rights leaders then organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • AA’s refused to ride the entire bus system until bus company changed their policy of segregation.
    • MLK Jr, became the spokesman for the protest.
    • Over the next year, 50,000 AA’s walked, rode bikes, and car pooled to avoid the bus.
    • 1956, Supreme Court ruled bus segregation was unconstitutional.
resistance in little rock
Resistance in Little Rock
  • Arkansas Governor, Orval Faubus, refused to follow Supreme Court’s ruling.
    • Placed National Guardsmen at Central High School.
      • Told to NOT let the 9 AA students into the school.
      • Ike sent soldiers to protect the students.
      • Students were then allowed to attend school at Central.
        • Response by Faubus: “Lost year in Little Rock.:
        • Faubus named “Most admired men of 1958.”
          • Sign of the times.
chapter 28 section 2
Chapter 28, Section 2

Leaders and Strategies

setting the scene1
Setting the Scene

More young people were becoming active in Civil Rights Movement.

Organization and Strong Commitment were required in order to make an impact.

  • Civil rights movement was a grass roots effort. Many organizations played a role in gaining equal rights.
    • NAACP: created in 1909 as an interracial orgz.
      • Appealed to educated, middle and upper class people.
      • Challenged laws that prevented AA’s from exercising full rights.
      • 1930’s: Passed anti-lynching laws
      • 1930’s Challenged housing and education segregation.
groundwork cont
Groundwork Cont….
  • National Urban League
    • Founded in 1911
    • Help AA’s moving out of the South into big cities in the North.
      • Also helped find jobs and homes!
    • Offer job opportunities and advancement to AA’s.
groundwork cont1
Groundwork Cont…
  • CORE:
    • Congress of Racial Equality
    • Bring about change through peaceful confrontation.
    • Interracial
    • Organized demonstrations in Chicago and Detroit
    • Eventually became a national organization.
  • SCLC- Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    • Preached nonviolent protest
    • Shifted focus of civil rights movement to the South.
    • MLK Jr. became known nationally through SCLC.
nonviolence cont
Nonviolence Cont…
  • Martin Luther King Jr.
    • Baptist preacher
    • One of the most loved, admired, and hated figures during civil rights movement.
    • Influenced by Gandhi
      • Must remain non-violent regardless of violent reactions .
    • Most known and prominent civil rights leader.
    • Earned Nobel peace prize in 1964.
new voice for students
New Voice for Students
  • “To accept passively an unjust system is to cooperate with that system; thereby the oppressed become as evil as the oppressor.”

-Martin Luther King, Jr.

new voice for students cont
New Voice for Students Cont…
  • Formation of SNCC (snick)
    • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
      • 1960, Raleigh, N.C.
      • Felt NAACP and SCLC were not meeting demands of young AA’s.
      • Eventually, became a major outlet for young people, both AA’s and whites.
      • Civil rights movement focus shifted from church’s to young activists.
new voice for students cont1
New Voice for Students Cont…
  • Robert Moses
    • SNCC’s most influential leader
    • Harvard Grad. And math teacher in Harlem, NY
      • Very soft-spoken
      • Loved and trusted because of his humble nature.
    • Wanted to help SNCC
      • Went to Mississippi to teach rural blacks how to vote.

The Struggle Intensifies

sit ins challenge segregations
Sit-Ins Challenge Segregations
  • 1943- CORE created the sit-in.
    • Sit at the location where service was refused and refuse to move.
  • Used throughout the 1960’s as a popular form of protest.
  • Forced businesses to serve protestors or cause a disruption.
  • MLK Jr. “Arrest is a badge of honor.”
freedom rides
Freedom Rides
  • Boynton v. Virginia (1960)- bus station waiting rooms and restaurants could NOT be segregated.
  • 1961- CORE organized the Freedom Rides
    • Test whether southern states would obey the Supreme Court ruling.
freedom rides cont
Freedom Rides Cont…
  • Violence and Freedom Rides:
    • May 4, 1961- First freedom ride leaves Washington D.C.
      • 13 riders, black and white, headed south on two busses
      • Busses split and ride became dangerous.
        • Alabama- armed white mob set the bus on fire and beat the freedom riders.
        • RFK sent federal marshals to aid the protestors.
        • RFK pushed ICC to desegregate ALL trains, planes, and busses.
integration at ole miss
Integration at Ole Miss
  • James Meredith
    • Student at Jackson State College wanted to transfer to Ole’ Miss… all white school.
    • He was rejected, NAACP filed suit.
    • Supreme Court ruled in Meredith’s favor.
    • Miss. Gov. Ross Barnett refused to let Meredith attend school.
    • JFK sent federal marshals in to accompany Meredith to class.
    • Violence then erupted on campus.
clash in birmingham
Clash in Birmingham
  • April, 1963, MLK visits Birmingham, AL.
    • “Most segregated city in America.” – MLK
    • Called for boycotts and sit-ins of segregated stores and restaurants.
    • City officials arrested MLK Jr. on grounds of “not obtaining a permit.”
    • MLK Jr. was in jail for a week, upon release asked for young people to join the protest.
    • More violence erupted.
clash in birmingham cont
Clash in Birmingham Cont…
  • TV cameras brought the violence into people’s living rooms.
    • Most were appalled.
    • Protestors sprayed with fire hoses, attacked by dogs and beaten by police.
  • Outcome: Protestors were victorious.
    • City was desegregated and fair hiring practices were implemented.