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Ch.24 Sec.2. The Partition of Africa. Africa in the Early 1800’s. North Africa: Contained the Sahara and fertile land on the Mediterranean Part of the Muslim world, but under the control of the Ottoman Empire Islamic Crusades in West Africa:

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ch 24 sec 2

Ch.24 Sec.2

The Partition of Africa

africa in the early 1800 s
Africa in the Early 1800’s
  • North Africa:
    • Contained the Sahara and fertile land on the Mediterranean
    • Part of the Muslim world, but under the control of the Ottoman Empire
  • Islamic Crusades in West Africa:
    • UsmandanFodio (Fulani) denounced the corruption of the local Hausa rulers and called for reforms based on the sharia (Islamic Law)
    • He created a state of Africans and literacy increased, wars quieted, and trade improved. This inspired other Islamic revolts in West Africa.
    • Asante in the west was strong and traded with Europeans and controlled others. These others turned to Europeans to help them defeat the Asante
africa in the early 1800 s1
Africa in the Early 1800’s
  • East Africa:
    • Islam influences the trade states of East Africa (Kilwa, Mombasa, Malindi)
    • Trade slaves, ivory, and copper for cloth and firearms from India
  • Southern Africa:
    • Shaka leads the Zula who waged wars and conquered many people before taking them in to his own kingdom.
    • This created mass migrations in this area. By the 1830s, the Zulus faced a new threat the Boers.
    • British take Cape Town from the Dutch, the Boers migrate north (Great Trek). They came into contact with the Zulus and fierce fighting occurred. Boers won because of their guns.
africa in the early 1800 s2
Africa in the Early 1800’s
  • Impact of the Slave Trade:
    • Early 1800s, Europeans begin to outlaw the transatlantic slave trade (E. African slave trade continued).
    • Britain helps freed slaves settle in Sierre Leone (1787) in West Africa
    • The USA helps freed slaves settle in Liberia (1848) in West Africa
european contact increases
European Contact Increases
  • Explorers Advance Into Africa’s Interior:
    • Explorers begin mapping Africa’s interior and rivers. All meet great hardships.
  • Missionaries Follow Explorers:
    • Catholic and Protestants follow explorers and try to convert Africans to Christianity
    • They want to help Africans (built schools, medical clinics and churches
    • Took a paternalistic view of Africans (needed to help and guide them and rejected all aspects of African culture).
  • Livingstone Blazes a Trail
    • Missionary who traveled Africa’s interior for 30 years and speaks highly of the Africans
    • Against the slave trade and wants Christianity into Africa to help Africans
a scramble for colonies
A Scramble for Colonies
  • Berlin Conference:
    • European powers meet in 1884 to discuss how to take over parts of Africa
    • Recognize Leopold’s claim of the Congo.
    • European powers had to set up governments in areas before claiming this land (what about the Africans).
    • In the next 20 years, the Europeans partitioned Africa and established new borders (redrew the Map of Africa with little regard for African views).
a scramble for colonies1
A Scramble for Colonies
  • Horrors in the Congo:
    • Leopold exploits the Congo (copper, rubber, and ivory) and works natives for almost nothing. He brutalized locals and the population declined.
    • Leopold turned this over to the Belgian government. Abuses stop but Africans were given very little power or say in the government.
  • France Extends Its Influences:
    • France took Algeria in the 1830s, Tunisia, and other colonies in West and Central
a scramble for colonies2
A Scramble for Colonies
  • Britain Takes Its Share:
    • More scattered colonies with large populations and many resources
    • Took parts of West and East Africa, Egypt and the Sudan.
    • Also took Cape Town and clashed with the Boers. Britain found gold and diamonds where the Boers were and defeated them and kicked them out in the Boer War. Set up a new government in South Africa run by whites with segregation (Apartheid).
  • Others Join the Scramble:
    • Portuguese take colonies in Angola and Mozambique (econ growth and national image)
    • Italy occupies Libya and the horn of East Africa (same as above)
    • Germany claims Cameroon and Togo (same as above)
africans resist imperialism
Africans Resist Imperialism
  • Also refer to page 759
  • Ethiopia Survives:
    • Ancient Christian kingdom managed to resist European colonization and maintain independence.
    • Menelik II ruled here and modernized his country (roads, bridges, school system, weapons, army tactics.
    • Italy invaded and Menlik and army defeated the Italians
    • Liberia preserved its independence too (set up by the USA)
  • A New African Elite Emerges:
    • Western educated African elite emerges that either reject their own culture or value their own traditions.
    • Some African leaders were beginning nationalist movements for independence