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# Hypotheses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Hypotheses. 9/4/2012. Readings. Chapter 1 The Measurement of Concepts (14-23) (Pollock ) Chapter 2 Measuring and Describing Variables (Pollock) (pp.28-31). Opportunities to discuss course content. Office Hours For the Week. When Wednesday 11-1 Thursday 8-12 And by appointment.

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### Hypotheses

9/4/2012

• Chapter 1 The Measurement of Concepts (14-23) (Pollock)

• Chapter 2 Measuring and Describing Variables (Pollock) (pp.28-31)

• When

• Wednesday 11-1

• Thursday 8-12

• And by appointment

• Students will learn the research methods commonly used in behavioral sciences and will be able to interpret and explain empirical data.

• Students will learn the basics of research design and be able to critically analyze the advantages and disadvantages of different types of design.

• We experience it

• We Define it

• We give it value (operationalize)

• We develop a hypothesis to explain/predict what we experienced in step 1

Units of Analysis

• The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis

• Each member of a population is an element

• Why they are important?

• The lowest form of data

• People, congressmen, presidents, etc

• A collection of individual level units

• Often measured in percentages

• Footprints

• this arises when an aggregate/ecological level phenomenon is used to make inferences at the individual level.

• Taking statewide data and applying to individuals

• Does everyone in MS go to church?

• taking one person's behavior, attributes, etc and applying it to an entire group

• Using 1 example to define group behavior

Examples from Texas

• An educated Guess

• These are explicit Statements

• They Try to explain a relationship

• But they are only tentative until tested

• The Statement of No Relationship

• What we want to disprove

• The Basic start of research

H0

• “there is a relationship between x and y”

• A very weak statement

• A directional hypothesis

• “as the independent variable increases, the dependent variable increases”

• “As the independent variable increases, the dependent variable decreases”

• Also called an inverse hypothesis

• Y=log(x)

• The dependent variable changes rapidly, followed by less change

• The Relationship forms a curve!

• The dependent variable increases to a point, and which point it begins to decrease

The Laffer Curve

• The Debate over taxes

• Ben Stein

• Roddy Piper (4:44)

• King Kong Bundy (2:56)

There is a _____(direction)________relationship

between ________and ____________

• Something that we can Measure

Generalizable

Specific

Always State a direction

Always identify the iv and the d.v.

Avoid the correlative hypothesis

• Apply to more than one case

• There needs to be a Real world justification for why they are related

• If Chewbacca lives on Endor, you must acquit

• You have to be able to test your hypothesisor it is just speculation.

• Your independent and dependent variables are separate concepts

A Causal Hypothesis

• The Boldest Hypothesis out there

• A relationship that will occur 100% at all times, no exceptions

• Difficult to Prove

• A Change in the Independent Variable will always cause a change in the dependent variable.

• A change in X always precedes a change in Y

• X is necessary and sufficient to cause a change in Y