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Energy conservation and carbon reduction. Dr Sarah Darby Lower Carbon Futures Environmental Change Institute University of Oxford http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/. Feedback (including metering) as a reality check .

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energy conservation and carbon reduction
Energy conservation and carbon reduction

Dr Sarah Darby

Lower Carbon Futures

Environmental Change Institute

University of Oxford

http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

feedback including metering as a reality check
Feedback (including metering) as a reality check

The young child is continually building a mental model of the world, checking it against reality as it presents itself, and … rebuilding it as necessary. We have to learn this business of comparing our mental model against reality and being willing to modify it...

- John Holt, 1970

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

basic feedback how much have i used
Basic feedback: how much have I used?

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

feedback from domestic pv
Feedback from domestic PV

Does generating your

own (green) electricity

encourage households

to save energy?

[http://www.geog.ox.ac.uk/~jkeirst/solar]

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

what do we want to know
What do we want to know?
  • What are we using now?
  • How much did we use yesterday/last month?
  • Is our consumption going up or down? Why?
  • How much are different appliances using?

and

  • Did we generate as much today as we used?
  • What was our peak consumption?

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

metering for effective information requirements and possibilities
Metering for effective information – requirements and possibilities
  • Accuracy – the display is trustworthy
  • Immediacy – especially for heating/cooling. Makes energy visible
  • Specificity – the customer’s own circumstances
  • ‘historic feedback’ – compare over time
  • make consumption visible - compare end-uses
  • learn what changes are possible and effective
  • …and now microgeneration

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

feedback use and other indicators of energy conscious householders
Feedback use and other indicators of energy-conscious householders

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

knowledge is built through feedback action and information
Knowledge is built through feedback, action and information

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

what do we know about measured savings from feedback studies
What do we know about measured savings from feedback studies?

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

feedback with tou pricing
Feedback with TOU pricing

… only seems to reduce peak domestic demand when P:OP ratio is high – at least 5:1

  • danger that disadvantaged customers suffer from TOUP – less able to shift load
  • a lot of outlay for small returns from residential sector?
  • peak demand can be reduced by other means: campaigns, retrofits and better feedback display with standard tariffs

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

challenge set for the 40 house study
Challenge set for the ‘40% House’ study

Four objectives of UK Energy White Paper:

  • 60% reduction in carbon dioxide by 2050
  • Adequate and affordable warmth
  • Security of supply
  • Competitiveness

To be met through demand reduction + building-integrated renewables

Source: http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/lowercf/40house.html#report

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

a possible 40 house scenario in the uk for 2050 involves
A possible ‘40% House’ scenario in the UK for 2050 involves…

Technology investment

  • 1.7 low- and zero-carbon technologies per home
  • halving of consumption by lights and appliances
  • reduction of peak grid demand by up to 27GW (2002 peak was 62GW)

+ people

    • Training in building, design, maintenance and inspection
    • Stronger, well-enforced building regulations
    • Good information and feedback - high levels of energy literacy

+ better quality building

      • Demolition of least energy-efficient housing
      • New homes (post-2004) move to near-zero heating requirements from 2020 onwards
      • The rest refurbished to the standard of 2004 new-build

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Feedback can help energy users to understand and control consumption
  • Accessible and clear direct feedback can reduce consumption by 10%
  • To be fully effective, it needs to be part of a wider process of social and individual learning
  • Micro-generation and smart metering open up new possibilities

energywatch smart metering seminar, September 2005