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Chapter 2 The sources of the English Vocabulary. The English people are of a mixed blood. At the beginning of the fifth century Britain was invaded by three tribes from the Northern Europe: the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. .

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slide1

Chapter 2

The sources

of the English Vocabulary

slide2

The English people are of a mixed blood. At the beginning of the fifth century Britain was invaded by three tribes from the Northern Europe: the Angles, Saxons and Jutes.

slide3

These three tribes landed on the British coast, drove the Britons west and north and settled down on the island.

slide4

These three three tribes merged into one people: the English people and the three dialects they spoke naturally grew into a single language: the English language.

slide5

The world has nearly 3,000 languages, which can be grouped into roughly 300 language families on the basis of similarities in their basic word stock and grammar. The Indo-European is made up of most of the languages of Europe, the near East, and India.

slide6

Indo-European Language

Eastern Set

Western Set

slide7

Eastern Set

Balto-Slavic Indo-Irannian

Armenian Albanian

slide8

Balto-Slavic

Czech Russian Prussian Polish

Slovenian Lithuanian Bulgarian

slide9

Indo-Iranian

Persian Bengali Hindi Romany

Derived from Sanskrit

slide10

Armenian Albanian

Armenian Albanian

slide11

Western Set

Celtic Italic Germanic Hellenic

slide12

Celtic

Scottish Irish Welsh Breton

slide13

Italic

Italian Portuguese Spanish

French Romanian

slide14

Germanic

German Dutch Flemish English

Norwegian Icelandic Danish Swedish

slide17

English can be roughly divided into:

Old English,

Middle English

Modern English.

slide18

Old English (450---1150)

Middle English ( 1150---1500)

Modern English (1500---Now)

Early: 1500---1700

Late :1700--- present

slide19

After the Romans, the Germanic tribes called angles, Saxons, and Jutes came. Soon they took permanent control of the land, which was to be called England. Their language, historically known as Anglo-Saxon, dominated and almost totally blotted out the Celtic.

slide20

Celtic made only a small contribution to the English vocabulary with such words as crag and bin and some place names like Avon, Kent, London, Themes. Now people generally refer to Anglo-Saxon as old English.

slide21

Two events in the Old English Period:

in the 6th century:Latin speaking Roman missionaries came to spread Christianity in Britain. The introduction of Christianity had a great impact on the English vocabulary. It brought many new ideas and customs and also many religious terms: abbot, candle, altar, amen, apostle.

slide22

In the 9th century: the land was invaded again by Norwegian and Danish Vikings. They came first to plunder, then to conquer. Finally they succeeded in placing a Danish king on the throne of England. With the invaders, many scandinavian words came into English.

slide23

These new words did not identify new ideas and objects. They were everyday words for which the English had terms and expressions. Many words were exactly alike, such as father, husband, house, life, man,mother, summer and winter.Other words were so much alike that they were used interchangeably.

slide24

It is estimated that at least 900 words of Scandinavian origin have survived in modern English, such as skirt, skill, window, leg, grasp, birth, they ,their, them and egg.

slide25

Old English has a vocabulary of about 50,000 to 60,000 words. It was a highly inflected language just like modern German. Therefore, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs ahs complex endings or vowel changes, or both.

slide26

Middle English

Old English began to undergo much change when the Normans invaded England from France in 1066.The Norman conquest started a continual flow of French words into English.

slide27

The English were defeated, but not killed off, nor were they driven from their country. They were reduced to the status of an inferior people. Norman French became the polite speech.

slide28

By the end of the 11th century, almost all of the people who held political or social power and many of those in powerful church positions were of Norman French origin.

slide29

By the end of the 13th century, English gradually came back into the schools, the law courts, and government and regained social status thanks to Wycliff translation of the Bible and the writings of Chaucer.

slide30

Between 1250 and 1500 about 9,000 words of French origin poured into English. We can find words relating to every aspect of human society, e.g. Government, social scales, law, religion, moral matters, military affairs, food ,fashion, etc.

slide31

For example: state, power, prince, duke, judge, court, crime, angel, mercy, peace, battle, pork, bacon, fry, roast, dress, coat.

slide32

Middle English retained much fewer inflections. Endings of nouns and adjectives marking distinction of number, came and often of gender lost their distinctive forms. If we say old English was a language of full endings, Middle English was one of levelled endings.

slide33

Modern English began with the establishment of printing in England.

In the early period of Modern English, Europe saw a new upsurge of learning ancient Greek and Roman classics. This is known in history as the Renaissance.

slide34

Latin and Greek were recognized as the languages of the Western world’s great literary heritage and of great scholarship, but translators were rapidly making great literary works available in English.

slide35

Translators and scholars borrowed heavily from the Latin vocabulary of their source materials during this period and many Latin words became part of English vocabulary.

slide36

In the mid-seventeenth century, England experienced Bourgeois Revolution followed by the Industrial Revolution and rose to be a great economic power. With the growth of colonization. British tentacles began stretching out to every corner of the globe.

slide37

Since the beginning of the last century, esp, after World War II, the world has seen breathtaking advances in science and technology. Many new words have been created to express new ideas, etc. ,yet more words are created by means of word-formation.

slide38

In modern English, word endings were mostly lost with just a few exceptions. English has evolved from a synthetic language to the present analytic language.

slide39

Classification of words:

English words may fall into the basic word stock and non-basic vocabulary by use frequency, into content words and functional words by notion and into native words and borrowed words by origin.

slide40

Basic Word Stock:

All national character: Words of the basic word stock denote the most common things and phenomena of the world around us, which are indispensable to all the people who speak the language.

slide41

Stability:

As they denote the commonest things necessary to life, they are likely to remain unchanged. Stability, however, is only relative.

slide42

Productivity:

Words of the basic word stock are most root words or monosyllabic words; They can form new words with other roots and affixes

slide43

Waterline waterhead waterfall waterfront waterlocks waterman waterside waterskin waterway waterproof water-sic water-ski

watermanship watered-down watercart water-rate water-police water-fast

见:23页

slide44

Footage, football, footpath, footer,

footfall, footed, footloose, footling,

footman, footing, footprint

slide45

doglike, doghood, dogcart, dog-

cheap, dog-ear, dog-fall, dogfight,

doghole, dog-paddle, dogsleep

slide46

Polysemy:

Words belonging to the basic word stock often possess more than one meaning because most of them have undergone semantic changes in the course of use and become polysemous.见21页

slide47

Collocability:

Many words of the basic word stock have strong collocability:

见22页

slide48

A change of heart,

after one’s heart,

cry one’s heart out,

eat one’s heart out,

a heart of gold,

slide49

at heart,

break one’s heart,

cross one’s heart,

have one’s heart in one’s mouth,

heart and hand,

slide50

heart and soul,

take sth to heart,

wear one’s heart upon one’s sleeve,

with all one’s heart.

slide51

Non-basic word stock:

1) usu. Words technical in sense:

arthritis

cerebritis

algebra

calculus

slide52

2. Slang

It belongs to the sub-standard language:

cancer stick: cigarette

dish the dirt: gossip or spread rumours about others

feel no pain: be drunk

in the soup: in serious trouble

bring down: disappoint

slide53

Native words and Borrowed words

Native words are words brought to Britain in the 5th century by the German tribes: the Angles, the saxons, and the Jutes.

slide54

Native words denote the commonest things in human society, they are used by all people, in all places on all occasions, and at all times.They are not stylistically specific.

slide55

They are neutral in style:

Begin (E)--- commence (French)

brotherly(E)--- fraternal (F)

answer (E) --- replay (F)

fall (E) --- autumn (F)

slide56

Borrowed words ( loan words or borrowings)

It is estimated that English borrowings constitute 80 percent of the modern English vocabulary.

见25页

slide57

Borrowed words are divided into four kinds:

denizens: they are words borrowed early in the past and now are well assimilated into the English language.

Change: changier(F)

pork: porc(F) 见25页

slide58

Aliens: they are words which have retained their original pronounciation and spelling. These words are immediately recognisable as foreign in origin.

slide59

Decor: 装饰

blitzkrieg闪电战

kowtow磕头

bazaar集市

status quo现状

intermezzo幕间剧

slide60

Translation-loans: translation loans are words and expressions formed from the existing material in the English language but modelled on the patterns taken from another language.

slide61

mother tongue: lingua materna (L)

long time no see(CH)

surplus value:mehrwert(G)

masterpiece: meisterstuck (G)

black humour:humour noir

slide62

Semantic loans:

Words of this category are not borrowed with reference to the form, but their meanings.

Semantic borrowings also refer to words which have acquired a new meaning under the influence of other languages.

slide63

“Pioneer” once signifying” explorer” only or “ person doing pioneering work” has now taken on the new meaning of “ a member of the Young Pioneer” from Russian

slide64

“Fresh” has adopted the meaning of “ impertinent, sassy, cheeky” under the influence of the German word “ frech”.

slide65

The Foreign Elements

in the English vocabulary

见27页

slide66

The Scandinavian element in English

An interesting feature of the language is a number of Danish forms existing side by side with the English forms in the English vocabulary

见28页

slide67

The Scandinavian words into English were not only nouns, adjectives, but also pronouns, prepositions, adverbs, and verbs.

见29页

slide68

Words from French can be divided into two groups:

1. French loan words in the middle English period

2. French loan words after the middle English period

见32 页

slide69

1. French loan words in the middle English period

connected with government:

government, administration, state, crown, authority, court

slide70

connected with religion:

religion, theology, prayer, dean, lesson, clerk, devotion

slide71

Words connected with Law

Justice, judgment, crime, evidence, proof, blame, arrest,

slide72

Words connected with army:

Army, peace, enemy, arms, captain, defence, soldier, guard,

slide73

Words connected with fashion and food

Dress,cloak, collar, button, boots, diamond, beef, pork, mutton, bacon, biscuit, cream, sugar, orange, lemon.

slide74

Words connected with arts, literature

Art, painting, learning, beauty, colour, figure, image, tragedy, title, story, pen

slide75

2. French loan words after the Middle English period:

The words are connected chiefly with arts, with food and drink, with fashion and with diplomacy.

见33页

slide76

The Latin Element in the English Vocabulary

  • The First period of Latin influence:
  • There was no opportunity for direct contact between Latin and Old English in England, so many words came in through Celtic transmission.
  • 见35页