chapter 18 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 18 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 18

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 55
Download Presentation

Chapter 18 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

gella
97 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 18

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 18 Physical Geography of Africa

  2. CHAPTER 18, SECTION 1 NOTES. • 1. Most of Africa is a plateau. Not much continental shelf. • A. Initially made it hard for colonization – will change with industrial revolution. • 2. Has several large basins (e.g. Chad Basin) • A. Span more than 625 miles and can be as deep as 5,000 ft.

  3. 18-1 • 3. Rivers • A. Nile River - longest river in world (4000 miles) • (1) Flows south to north - prevailing winds north to south

  4. 18-1 • B. Most of rivers have many waterfalls, rapids, and gorges. • C. Congo River (2,900 miles) provides largest network of waterways - but has 32 cataracts. • D. Niger river starts in W. Africa and flows towards Sahara • A. Meanders - not good for navigation.

  5. 18-1 • 4. Rift Valleys and Lakes • A. Rift valleys formed via plate tectonics as east Africa has been slowly pulling apart from remainder of Africa.

  6. 18-1 • (1) Rift valley stretch over 4,000 miles (from Jordan to Mozambique) • B. Lakes form at bottom of rift valleys • (1) Lake Tanganyika - longest fresh water lake in world • (a) 420 miles long = depth up to 4,700 ft.

  7. 18-1 • (2) Africa’s largest lake is Lake Victoria - Second largest in the world

  8. 18-1 • 5. Mountains - mainly volcanic • A. Mount Kilimanjaro largest in Africa

  9. 18-1 • B. Great escarpment in southern Africa - volcanic • (1) marks edge of southern plateau

  10. 18-1 • 6. Africa’s Resources: • A. Africa has worlds richest mineral deposits • (1) Gold, (30 % of world’s gold) platinum (80% of global resources), chromium, cobalt (42% of world cobalt), copper, phosphates, diamonds, and many others.

  11. 18-1 • B. Only now is Africa starting to benefit from rich mineral wealth • (1) In past - European countries carved up Africa (colonization)

  12. 18-1 • 7. Oil • A. Libya, Nigeria, & Algeria major producers of petroleum • (1) Angola & Gabon huge untapped reserves • 8. Coffee, and Lumber (Nigeria largest exporter in Africa - 8th in world) are also important commodities in Africa, followed by sugar, palm oil, cocoa (Cote d’ Ivoire)

  13. 18-1 • 9. Approx. 66% of Africans are farmers. Farming approx 1/3 of its • total exports.

  14. Chapter 18 Section 2 • 1. Most of Africa is warm/tropical (between tropics Cancer/Capricorn) • 2. Sahara - largest desert in world (3,000 W. to E.) (1,200 N. to S.) • A. Temps up to 136.4 degrees F. during day - can freeze at night • B. Consists of 20% sand. Remainder - mts., rock formations, and gravel • C. Aquifers - large underground water deposits • (1) Oasis - water comes to surface

  15. 18-2 • 3. Rainfall • A. Most precipitation in Central Africa. • B. Tropical Savanna - stretch through middle of continent covers approx. ½ of total African surface area • (1) Closer to equator - longer rainy season. Closer to desert - longer dry season • C. Most of other parts of Africa experience dry/wet seasons • (1) North Africa - rainfall winter. South Africa - rainfall -summer

  16. 18-2 • 4. Mediterranean climate on the northern and southern tips of • continent. • 5. Tropical Grassland - covers much of Africa (e.g. Serengeti Plain - Tanzania) • A. Home to many herd animals • B. Annual migrations

  17. 18-2 • 6. Rain Forest at the equator (Congo Basin). • A. Many different types of flora/fauna found here. • B. Fast forest floor decomposition. • C. Most animals live in the canopy (upper branches of trees) • (1) Up to 150 ft. high. • D. Slash/burn farming methods endangering

  18. 18-3 • 1. Sahel (shore of the desert) is a narrow band of dry grassland • from east to west of southern edge of Sahara. • A. Farming/herding found here • (1) As a result of this and natures long-term cycle, Sahara is expanding south (desertification)

  19. Desertification • Sahel-transition zone for Sahara • Productive land turns into desert • Soil no longer holds moisture-becomes desert • Happens due to drought (1960-1990) • Constant farming on the same portion of land, becomes arid,dry,-famine

  20. 18-3 • (2) Irrigation (via drilled wells) increases salt levels in Sahel • (3) Population growth puts stress on Sahel • Groundwater • Build dams to store water/irrigate lands

  21. Nigeria

  22. 18-3 • 2. Environment • A. Nigeria, 6th largest exporter of oil has damaged environment. • (1) Oil - 80-90% of Nigeria’s income • (2) Problems: Mismanagement, poor planning, corruption and drop in oil prices have left Nigeria in poverty (3) More than 4,000 oil spills have occurred in the Niger delta over past 4 decades

  23. 18-3 • (4) Oil fires cause acid rain and soot causes respiratory diseases (5) Bandits do major damage to pipelines during theft of oil • (6) New President Obasanjo attempting to clean up corruption

  24. Current-Nigeria • Periodic blackouts • Spoilage of foods-poor suffered • Telephone inadequate • Scarcity of clean water • Roads-in poor state • Acid rain • Massive deposit of soot

  25. Nigeria Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 when it elected Olusegun as President He fired all the corrupt officials Not attached to army

  26. 18-3 • 3. Nile • A. First Aswan Dam completed in 1902 to control flooding • B. Aswan High Dam completed in 1970s • (1) Lake behind dam is Lake Nasser

  27. Nile River • Building of Answan High Dam to control flooding of Nile • Egypt &Sudan shares Lake Nasser