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Baabs and Weak letters

Baabs and Weak letters

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Baabs and Weak letters

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  1. Baabs and Weak letters Two Systems of Verb Classification Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  2. Introduction • In the previous discussions we saw how tenses and other related meanings are conveyed by placing base-letters in designated patterns. The materiel in the previous chapters covers about 25% of the science of Arabic Morphology. We say this because any two verbs in the language that are in the same voice and have the same tense and conjugation number, one would assume they would look exactly the same and rhyme with one another, only the letters being different in each of the two. This is not the case. It is very common to have them looking different despite total confirmation in all the above mentioned aspects. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  3. 50% of Sarf • To understand these differences and why they occur comprises of a full 50% of the science; two sections of approximately 25% each when the whole science is viewed in its entirety. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  4. Examples • Consider the following pairs of verbs. Each pair consists of two verbs which look and sound very different despite fully confirming in the above: • يَسمَعُ (hears), يَكسِرُ (breaks)- Both verbs are مضارع, singular masculine third person conjugations. A vowelling difference can be seen on the middle letters; فتحة in يَسمَعُ and كسرة in يَكسِرُ. • كَرُمَ (became noble), خَرَجَ (exited)- Here they are the same conjugation number one, and both are ماضي. The عين position حركات are ضمة in كَرُمَ and فتحة in خَرَجَ. • يَدعُو (invites), يَطلُبُ (seeks)- يَدعُو ends in a ساكن letter, while يَطلُبُ has a ضمة on the last letter. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  5. More Examples • يَدْعُونَ (they invite), يَطلُبُونَ (they seek)- The same مضارع verbs as in number 3 are shown here in plural masculine third person. Upon pondering one will see يَدْعُونَ has one less letter than يَطلُبُونَ. The لام position of يَدعُو (above), the و is missing. The و in يَدْعُونَ is the suffix/pronoun and not the third base letter. • دَعا (invited),طَلَبَ (sought)- دَعا ends in an الف which is a ساكن letter, whileطَلَبَ is three letters; all of themمفتوحة. • تَقَبَّلَ (accepted), أنكَرَ (rejected)- تَقَبَّلَ has five letters and أنكَرَ has only four, despite both verbs being singular masculine third person conjugations of the same past tense verb. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  6. Two Reasons • It is the understanding of these differences which we will attempt to make clear in the upcoming discussions. • These and similar inconsistencies occur due to TWO reasons: • Difference in number of letters and عين position vowellization; Trilitteral verbs (base/increased), Quadrilitteral verbs (base/increased), • Difference in nature of letters (regular/irregular). Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  7. Difference in number of letters • The minimum number of base letters in any verb or derived noun is three, while the maximum is four. Each one of the two; trilitteral (ثلاثي) and quadrilitteral (رباعي) may comprise of only base letters (حروف أصلية), or also involve the addition of ‘non-base’ or extra letters (زائدةحروف). Thus giving us four distinct groupings: Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  8. Four Broad Groupings • ثلاثى مجرد – Three-lettered verbs without extras • ثلاثى مزيد فيه – Three-lettered verbs in which addition has occurred • رباعى مجرد – Four-lettered verbs with no extras • رباعى مزيد فيه – Four-lettered verbs in which addition has occurred Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  9. Verb Form 1 • Under each of the four broad categories mentioned above, there are several verb groupings. In ثلاثى مجرد (three-lettered without extras), also referred to as verb form 1, differences occur due to variations in عين position vowelling. In total ثلاثى مجرد has six baabs. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  10. First System of Classification(الأبواب) • If you recall how we constructed the various verb conjugation tables in the first section of these discussions, you will notice that primarily there were only two distinct patterns, which needed to be memorized i.e. the active past tense table (فَعَلَ) and the active imperfect table (يَفعَلُ). فَعَلَ had its own set of suffixes to reflect the three aspects of the subject; gender, plurality and person, while يَفعَلُ had its own suffixes. It was because of these suffixes (14 in total), conjugation tables were formed. All passive voice and negative tables as well as the command and negative command tables were made either by adding designated prefixes or by altering vowelling of the base letters along clear صرف rules. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  11. Difference in عين position vowelling • With the help of these rules, any conjugation table can be easily constructed. However, not EVERY past tense verb and EVERY imperfect verb will look alike. When introducing both the pattern for the active ماضيand the pattern for the active مضارع recall we said it can be one of three POSSIBLE patterns. • For the active voice ماضي: • فعَل • فعِل • فعُل • For the active voice مضارع: • يفعَل • يفعِل • يفعُل Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  12. Nine Total Combinations • Now because every meaning which in Arabic is conveyed by base-letters will require both the ماضي and مضارع, to cover all the possible tenses, and because in each, ALL three عين position vowelling possibilities exist, we will need to look at the total combinations which occur from multiplying the three ماضي patterns with the three مضارع patterns; it comes to nine combinations. ; fa’ala yaf’alu, fa’ala yaf’elu, fa’ala yaf’ulu and so forth. From the total nine combinations three do not exist, namely kasrah in Madhi, dhammah in Mudhari (fa’ela yaf’ulu), dhammah/fathah (fa’ula yaf’alu) and dhammah/kasrah (fa’ula yaf’elu). Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  13. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  14. The Six Baabs ofثلاثى مجرد • The six that do exist become the six verb groupings of verb form 1 (ثلاثى مجرد) [see below]. When referring to these groupings orالأبواب, the scholars of Sarf use the most popular example coming from each as the name of theباب. They are listed below in order of popularity: • باب نَصَرَ يَنْصُرُ; fathah/dhammah • باب ضَرَبَ يَضْرِبُ; fathah/kasrah • باب سَمِعَ يَسْمَعُ; kasrah/fathah • باب فَتَحَ يَفْتَحُ; fathah/fathah • باب كَرُمَ يَكْرُمُ; dhammah/dhammah • باب حَسِبَ يَحْسِبُ; kasrah/kasrah Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  15. ثلاثى مزيد فيه • ثلاثى مزيد فيه : trilateral, wherein EVEN the most simple conjugation involves the addition of one or more non-base letters. This category has a total of 14 baabs, split into two groups; a group of five that DO NOT begin with the همزة الوصل, and a group of nine ابواب that DO begin with the همزة الوصل. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  16. Most Simplest Conjugation • Note the emphasis on the most simple conjugation (ماضى واحد مذكر غائب). The entire above classification into four broad groupings, which later will be sub-classified into the 24 ابواب, is dependent upon analyzing this most simple i.e. prefix-less, suffix-less conjugation. The reason is obvious; EVERYTHING after (ماضى واحد مذكر غائب) will have extra letters, either prefixes or suffixes. Consider the following two examples: Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  17. Example of an Imperfect Verb • 1. يَكْسِرُ (he breaks). This comprises of a total four letters;ى,ك,سandر. • On first glance one would assume it to be eitherرباعى مجرد, (if all four are base), orثلاثى مزيد فيه, (if the ىin the beginning is non-base and the other three are base). However, the reality is neither. In order to determine the mujarrad-ness or mazeed fihi-ness of the Imperfect verbيَكْسِرُ, one is required to trace it back to its most simplest form; THE MADHI WAHID MUDHAKKAR GHAIB. For يَكْسِرُ it isكَسَرَ. Now just count the letters in كَسَرَ(ك،س،ر). The total is three letters, with no extras. Therefore, يَكْسِرُ (along with all the other conjugation variations of كَسَرَ ) is without doubt ثلاثى مجرد. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  18. Example of a Command Verb • قاتلوا (Fight!). This is a command verb, plural masculine second person. The total number of letters are 5; (ق،ا،ت،ل،و) . The وat the end is a suffix for the plural masculine. Therefore, it will not be considered. For this particular verb the ماضى واحد مذكر غائبis قاتَلَ(ق،ا،ت،ل). A recognition of the materiel to be mentioned in this chapter will reveal that the الفafter the فاءposition is an extra letter, hence the verb will be classified ثلاثى مزيد فيه (three base letters; قاف, تاء and لام, plus the extraالف ). Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  19. Base-letters and ‘weighing’ • A ‘base-letter’ (حرف أصلى): is that letter which, when ‘weighing’ the particular conjugation, falls upon either the فاءpostion, عينposition or لام position. • An ‘extra-letter’ (حرف زائد): is that letter which falls on other than the three above mentioned positions at the time of ‘weighing’. Non-base letters may be prefixes or suffixes or they may be signs of the advanced verb groupings, such as the الفin قاتل mentioned above. It is this second type of extra letter i.e. the sign of the بابwhich is relevant here when we discuss باب classification. • ‘Weighing’ is a term used by the scholars of صرف, which refers to the process of rhyming by which the بابof any given verb is ascertained. Recall that a باب is an etymological grouping which arises due to difference in number of letters or عين position vowelling in BOTH the active past tense pattern as well as the active imperfect pattern. Thus we have 24 pairs; a past and an imperfect in each. All have very unique patterns of lettering or vowelling. They will all be listed shortly. Now if we need to ascertain the باب forقاتل , we will need to weigh it with the 24 ماضىpatterns. IT WILL ONLY RHYME WITH ONE. Doing this will reveal it rhymes withفاعَلَ faa-‘a-la: • qaf—alif—taa—laam • faa—alif—ain—laam Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  20. 24ابواب • Note that the designated patterns for all 24 ابوابare very clearly delineated. Each باب has certain unique meaning connotations associated with it. For example نصرhas a base-letter meaning of ‘to help’. If these same three letters are taken into one of the advanced verb groupings mentioned below, resulting in إستنصر (is-tan-sa-ra), the meaning becomes ‘to seek help’. Likewise ‘إسْتفْهَمَ’ means ‘to seek understanding’ i.e. ask a question. ذَهَبَ(to go), when taken into another of these ‘extra letterابواب’, results in ‘أذْهَبَ’(to take). بابconnotations are also discussed inصرف. Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9

  21. The five ابوابof ثلاثى مزيد فيه withoutهمزة الوصل • أَكْرَمَ يُكْرِمُ • صَرََفَ يُصَرِِفُ • قاتَلَ يُقَاتِلُ • تَقَبََلَ يَتَقَبََلُ • تَقَابَلَ يَتَقَابَلُ Shariah Program Online - Sarf L9