Building Academic DiscourseAngel J. Barrett, Ed.D. Facilitating Academic Discourse Presentation focuses on on academic vocabulary and student-led discussion techniques for rigorous instruction. How can administrators lead their staff in building academic discourse and what should leaders be seeing in the classroom? In addition to examples of what students are expected to learn in English language arts, the presentation will also look at constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others in mathematics.
Learning Objectives At the end of this presentation, participants will • Have a repertoire of instructional models to build academic discourse. • Refresh/recycle best practices into building academic discourse. • Have additional resources for professional development that builds academic discourse.
Academic Discourse is the result of… • Experience • Familiarity • Playing with language.
In 5th grade, what will students need to do? • Draw Conclusions/Use Details (Gr. 5 Quote from text) • Example: What does Naomi learn about Grandma Ruth? Use details from the text to support your answer. • Multi-Step Responses Example: Five swimmers compete in the 50-meter race. The finish time for each swimmer is shown in the video. Swimmer 1: 23.42 Swimmer 2: 23.35 Swimmer 3: 23.24 Swimmer 4: 23.21 Swimmer 5: 23.18 Explain how the results of the race would change if the race used a clock that rounded to the nearest tenth.
Mechanical Check • Can students decode the information? • Are there specific sounds that they do not know? • Are they struggling with multisyllabic words? • Do you need to pre-teach/re-teach some of the words? • Can they read with fluency? • Are students chunking the text or reading word by word? • Do they stop at the end of a sentence? • Do they pause with commas?
Read, Read, Read Source: http://chartchums.wordpress.com
Simple Strategies • Read at least three times. • Look for key search words. (Reference search engines on the internet.) • Look for patterns. • Restate the question in their own words. • Divide the question into parts. Number each part so they can see how many things that they have to do. • Allow students to play with language by talking and writing first.
Look for….. Listen for….. • Evidence of long-term planning • Mini-lessons for skills • Flexible Grouping • Small group instruction • Artifacts from all levels of instruction • Pre-teaching struggling readers. • Text presented in multiple ways: read aloud, small group and independent • Modeling (think alouds) and Guided Practice • Multiple Reads • Fluency including Chunking • Explicit teaching of strategies
Language of Argumentation • the vocabulary needed to articulate either orally or through writing the process of reasoning and drawing conclusions and applying them to the case in discussion • Included in Isabel Beck’s Tier 2 “must-know words” • Targeted words that are key to expressing content mastery or comprehension
Tiered Vocabulary Pyramid Source: http://www.learningunlimitedllc.com/2013/05/tiered-vocabulary
Kimberly Tyson: No Tears for Tiers: Common Core Tiered Vocabulary Made SimpleMay 26, 2013 By Kimberly 2.Focus for Instruction http://www.learningunlimitedllc.com/2013/05/tiered-vocabulary/
TCOE ELA Bookmarks Screenshot from www.tcoe.org
Talk to a colleague about it…. Which of the following vocabulary words would be Tier 2 words and why? Tier 3 words and why? question, answer, folktales, fables, demonstrate, key details, resolution, point of view, plot, digital text
Marzano’s 6-Step Process(example of explicit vocabulary instruction) Six-Step Vocabulary Process http://www.learningunlimitedllc.com/2012/12/marzanos-6-step-vocabulary-process/
Language of the Discipline • Vocabulary specific to an academic domain • Isabel Beck’s Tier 3 words • Low-frequency words taught in specific content areas
Think Like a DisciplinarianDr. Sandra Kaplan, USC Screenshot from http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~skaplan
Think Like a Zoologist Source: http://www.occgate.org/conf/2010/mgriffith_tlad1.pdf
Think Like a Paleontologist Source: http://www.occgate.org/conf/2010/mgriffith_tlad1.pdf
Think like a Journalist Source: http://www.occgate.org/conf/2010/mgriffith_tlad1.pdf
Think Like a Historian Originator: Stanford History Education Group https://sheg.stanford.edu/home_page
CommunicatorCalifornia Association for the Gifted, Winter 1996Victoria Steinitz and Sandra Kaplan
Simple to Complex My birthday is today. I got a bicycle. • Active and passive sentences. • Today is my birthday. I was given a bicycle. • Because today is my birthday, I was given a bicycle. • Compound sentences. • My birthday is today, and I got a bicycle. • Colons and semi-colons. • My birthday is today; I got a bicycle. • Adding clauses. • Because today is my birthday, I got a bicycle.
“Sunlight from the late morning sun filtered in through the leaves of the dogwood tree outside the open window.”From Grandmother Ruth Sunlight from the late morning sun filtered in through the leavesof the dogwood treeoutside the open window. The author has taken the sentence Sunlight filtered in. and added four prepositional phrases to create a picture.
I was throwing it. Bowie was bringing it back. “By the end of our session, I was throwing it straight as an arrowand Bowie was bring it back as fast as he could.” from Grandma Ruth
Sunlight from the late morning sun filtered in through the leavesof the dogwood treeoutside the open window. Sunlight filtered in. Sunlight from the late morning sun filtered in. Sunlight from the late morning sun filtered in through the leaves. Sunlight from the late morning sun filtered in through the leaves of the dogwood tree.
Drawing Activity The Beach House I love my grandparent’s beach house. There are waves and sand. There are crabs under rocks. We dig for clams. Example from 4th grade writing (48)
Drawing Activity The Beach House I will always love my grandparent’s beach house. The way the waves roll over the gooey sand, and the way the sand weaves in between your toes. The way we pick up barnacle-covered rocks and watch the sand crabs scurry away, and how we dig for clams and end up knee deep in the never ending sand. Excerpt from http://www.ttms.org/PDFs/03%20Writing%20Samples%20v001%20(Full).pdf
Academic Vocabulary: explicit, inference, textual evidence, conclude, author’s purpose, quote
Why did the author write this text? The author wrote this text because….. The author’s purpose in writing this text was _______. Based on the textual evidence from page __, I can conclude (or infer) that the author wrote this text because. Because the text explicitly states ________, I can conclude that the author’s purpose is writing this text was ________? Academic Vocabulary: explicit, inference, textual evidence, conclude, author’s purpose, quote
Play with words… Using the same vocabulary words, see how many different frames you can create for this question prompt: What can you conclude from this text? Academic Vocabulary: explicit, inference, textual evidence, conclude, author’s purpose, quote (Note: You may use other vocabulary. These are examples from the ELA bookmark that are associated with this anchor standard.)
Math Practice Standard #3construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.Learn Zillion.com