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Group Therapy. Group Therapy. More than simultaneous treatment for several individuals Advantages of group therapy: Economy : group therapy is less expensive Group support : there is comfort in knowing that others have similar problems Feedback : group members learn from each other

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group therapy2
Group Therapy
  • More than simultaneous treatment for several individuals
  • Advantages of group therapy:
    • Economy: group therapy is less expensive
    • Group support: there is comfort in knowing that others have similar problems
    • Feedback: group members learn from each other
    • Behavioral rehearsal: group members can role-play the activities of the key persons in a member’s life
group therapy3
Group Therapy

First practiced at the beginning of the 20th century by Joseph Pratt in Boston

  • Worked with tuberculosis patients
group therapy4
Group Therapy
  • Use stimulated by the shortage of trained therapists after WWII
  • Every major model of clinical psychology offers group therapy

also popular with nonprofessional, self- help organizations (weight-control, AA, NA, etc.)

group therapy5
Group Therapy
  • No consensus as to a uniform process of group therapy
    • Most therapists emphasize the importance of interpersonal relationships and assume that personal maladjustment involves difficulties with interpersonal relationships
yalom s curative factors
Yalom’s Curative Factors
  • Common to most, if not all, group therapies
    • Sharing new information
    • Instilling hope
    • Universality
    • Altruism
    • Interpersonal learning
    • Recapitulation of the primary family
    • Group cohesiveness
the practice of group therapy
The Practice of Group Therapy
  • Groups usually consist of 6-12 members
    • If too small – lack of universality and cohesiveness
    • If too large – mechanical feedback, lack of sensitivity
the practice of group therapy8
The Practice of Group Therapy
  • Duration
    • May be on-going or time-limited

Each session usually lasts longer than sessions in individual therapy – 2 hours is common

homogeneity vs heterogeneity
Homogeneity vs. Heterogeneity
  • Major issue
    • Homogeneous membership – more direct focus on shared problems
    • Heterogeneous groups – easier to form, wider diversity (more like general society)
marital family therapy11
Marital & Family Therapy
  • Marital and family discord are 2 of the most common problems encountered by clinical psychologists
    • Approximately 50% divorce rate
    • Child abuse, adolescent suicide, runaways, substance abuse, etc.
marital therapy
Marital Therapy
  • Often called couples therapy due to societal changes
  • The client is the relationship, not the individuals in that relationship
    • the goal is to save the relationship
marital therapy13
Marital Therapy
  • MT can be preceded by, followed or accompanied by individual psychotherapy for one or both members, or can stand alone
  • Individual therapy is indicated when one member is suffering from a problem largely unrelated to the relationship
marital therapy14
Marital Therapy
  • The need for couples therapy usually arises out of the conflicting expectations and needs of the couple
  • Common areas of conflict: sexual satisfaction, personal autonomy, communication, intimacy, money management, fidelity, expression of disagreement/hostility
marital therapy15
Marital Therapy
  • Common theme among marital therapists – emphasis on problem solving: learning to work together, communication and negotiation
  • Changing not only the way a couple talks to each other, but how they think about their relationship
    • Decreased fault-finding and blaming
    • Increasing mutual responsibility
    • Maintaining a here-and-now focus
    • Expression of preferences, rather than demands
    • Negotiating compromises
family therapy
Family Therapy
  • Similar to couples therapy, but evolved for different reasons
  • A number of therapists noticed that a number of individuals who made significant improvements in individual therapy or institutional treatment often had a relapse when they returned to their families – this led to an emphasis on the family environment and parent-child interactions as causes of maladaptive behavior
family therapy17
Family Therapy
  • The basic concepts of FT differ from individual therapy
  • Grounded in systems theory
    • Circular causality – events are inter-related and mutually dependent
    • Ecology – systems can only be understood as integrated patterns, not component parts
    • Subjectivity – there are no objective views of events, only subjective perceptions filtered by the experiences of perceivers in a system
    • Homeostasis – the tendency of a family to act in ways that maintain the family’s equilibrium or status quo
family therapy18
Family Therapy
  • The therapeutic focus is on changing interactions between/among family members with the goal of improving the functioning of the family or the functioning of individual members of the family
  • The focus is initially on one family member – the “identified patient” or scapegoat (typically an adolescent, but not always)
    • The therapist reframes the problem in terms of disturbed family processes or faulty family communications
    • Family members are encouraged to see their own contributions to the family’s problems, as well as the positive changes they can make