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Conole Keynote Guadalajara

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  1. The potential & paradoxes of new technologies & implications for education & its implications for web citizenship Gráinne Conole, The Open University, UK Aprenred, University of Guadalajara, Mexico, 7th October 2010

  2. Orientation Web citizenship Social inclusion Focus • Open, social and participatory media • Mapping pedagogies to e-learning • A vision of openness – Open Practices • Open Design • Open Delivery • OpenResearch • Open Evaluation • Implications for learning and teaching Innovation Quality

  3. Open, social and participatory media New tools/practices are leading to new forms of learning and teaching Media sharing Sharing Web 2.0 Blogs & wikis Communicating Social networking Networking Virtual worlds Interacting Shift from: Web 1.0 – content repository and static information Web 2.0 – user generated content and social mediation

  4. A typology of new technologies (Conole and Alevizou, 2010), Review of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/1895 and http://bit.ly/b08uY2#HEA

  5. So what is learning? Thought by itself, however, moves nothing; what moves us is thought aiming at some goal and concerned with action (Aristotle) Human learning… whole persons construct experiences of situation and transform them into knowledge, skills attitudes, values, emotions and the senses, and integrate the outcomes into their own biographies (Jarvis, 2004) Knowledge is information already transformed: selected, analyzed, interpreted, integrated, articulated, tested evaluated’ (Laurillard, 1993)

  6. Pedagogies of e-learning Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010 A E-training Drill & practice Inquiry learning Resource-based Associative Focus on individual Learning through association and reinforcement Constructivist Building on prior knowledge Task-orientated Situative Learning through social interaction Learning in context Connectivist Learning in a networked environment Experiential, problem-based, role play Reflective & dialogic learning, Personalised learning

  7. Some case study examples Interactive materials, e-assessment E-training, drill and practice Location aware devices, Virtual worlds, online games Inquiry learning, resource-based learning Google, media sharing repositories, user-generated content Experiential, problem-based, role play Blogs, RSS feeds, e-portfolios, wikis, social networks Reflective and dialogic learning, Personalised learning

  8. E-training, drill and practice McNaught, 2010, Edmedia Keynote

  9. Going mobile

  10. Inquiry-based learning My community The Personal Inquiry project Inquiry-based learning across formal and informal settings Sharples, Scanlon et al. http://www.pi-project.ac.uk/

  11. Resource-based learning GLO Maker Learning Objects Podcasts - iTunes U Open Educational Resources

  12. Situated learning – virtual exhibitions What can avatars do? Virtual realities in collaborative learning Li et al., 2010, Edmedia conference Aims to develop proficient technical writing and design skills Cohort of 82 students created a movie poster of the film, Avatar Virtual exhibition in SecondLife Other examples: Archeological digs Medical wards Art exhibitions Cyber-law Virtual language exchange Beyond formal schooling

  13. Role-based learning Wills et al., 2010 Pheny and Shun, 2009, Ascilite conference

  14. Reflective and dialogic learning Uses Blogs and E-portfolios for personal reflection Wikis/social bookmarking for aggregation Wikis for project-based work Cohort blogs for shared understanding Web 2.0 tool to connect beyond the course E-portfolios for aggregation and evidence Twitter for just-in-time learning Joyes, 2009, Ascilite conference

  15. Personalised learning Connectivism and Connective knowledge Critical literacies online

  16. Communication+ A redefining of what ICT means Audio & video conferencing Media sharing Forums Google wave Email Wikis Blogs Instant messaging Twitter Interactivity Virtual worlds, online games & immersive environments Web pages Social networking Mash ups

  17. Co-evolution of tools and practice Affordances of technologies Characteristics of users Affordances (Gibson) ‘All"action possibilities" latent in an environmentt… but always in relation to the actor and therefore dependent on their capabilities.’ For instance, a tall tree offers the affordances of food for a Giraffe but not a sheep. Reflection Preferences Dialogue Interests Evolving practices Aggregation Skills Interactivity Context Basic communications & gestures Symbolic representations (words, numbers) 1st wave technologies (phone, radio, fax, TV, CD/DVDs) 2nd wave technologies networks, mobiles, the Internet)

  18. Digital skills (Jenkins, et al., 2008) Play Visualisation Performance Negotiation Appropriation Simulation Multi-tasking Networking Distributed cognition Transmedia navigation Collective intelligence Judgment

  19. The reality gap Paradoxes Technologies not fully exploited Little evidence of use of OER Predominance of ‘old practices’ Media sharing Blogs & wikis Reasons Technical, pedagogical, organisational… “Lack of time, research vs. teaching, lack of skills, no rewards, no support….” Solutions? Models and frameworks Learning design Pedagogical patterns Open Educational Resources Virtual worlds & online games Social networking

  20. Redefining openness… Design Courses design & shared openly Delivery Use of free tools & resources What is/will be the impact of an increasingly open technologically mediated learning environment in learning and teaching? Peer critiquing Sharing Repurposing Open practices Networking Inquiry Collective intelligence Research Sharing of research data Evaluation Critical reflection Also see Alex Couros, Edmedia, 2010

  21. Open Design Open Delivery Open Research X-Delia Open Evaluation

  22. Open Design: Learning design Shift from belief-based, implicit approaches to design-based, explicit approaches A design-based approach to creation and support of courses Encourages reflective, scholarly practices Promotes sharing and discussion Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Rebecca Galley, Paul Mundin

  23. The learning design concept wheel Learning Design taxonomy Mediating artefacts Affordances Tools Activities Cloudworks Resources Resources ’Design Challenge’ Foundations Collaboration DialogPlus toolkit Phoebe planner Pedagogic planner Course views Representation Activities Tools Tools Activities Resources Excel template CompendiumLD

  24. Translates into… Tailored guided pathways of different levels of intensity and length Awareness sessions Using technologies Design challenges Master’s level OER Free format

  25. Representation The Open University, UK KE312 Working together with children How are courses typically represented? How explicit is the inherent design? What’s the problem? Text-based/focus on content Doesn’t show what the course is really like or what it consists of

  26. Course views: conceptual and data-driven Learning Outcomes Pedagogy Profile Course Dimensions Course Map Task Swimlane Course Performance Cost effectiveness

  27. KE312 - Course map Guidance & Support Course guide, study calendar, study planner, 20 learning guides, General assessment guidelines and assignments Tutor support: 1:20, 21 hours Content & Activities 3 co-published books, DVDs of 3 practice settings, core questions, thinking points in course books Own experience and practice PDFs, e-journal articles & websites, activities in learning guides, 5 website interactivities Communication & Collaboration F-t-F tutorials near beginning, middle and end, Course-wide café forum, Tutor-group forums with sub-groups for each block Reflection & Demonstration Journal space in the Mystuffe-portfolio, 6 assignments online (50% of overall score) Course summary KE312 - Working together with Children, 60 pt course over 32 weeks, 3 blocks/20 guides Whole weeks devoted to assignments Consolidation week (week 22) Key words Practice-related, aligned to latest professional framework for multi-agency working, rich cases Read-Relate to practice – Reflect - Write

  28. Pedagogy profile • Map of learner tasks to time periods (weeks, semesters, etc.) • 6 types of learner task + assessment • Assimilative • Information handling • Communication • Productive • Experiential • Adaptive • Assessment • Each cell indicates the amount • of time spent on each type of task Learning Activity Taxonomy - Conole, 2008

  29. Course dimensions Guidance & Support Content & Activities Reflection & demonstration Communication & Collaboration

  30. Learning outcomes • Mapping learning outcomes to: • Activities • Assessment • Based on Biggs’ work (1999) on constructive alignment • Maps course and highlights any gaps

  31. Task swimlane • Focus on the tasks learners do • Base on: • Roles (learner, tutor, etc.) • Tasks (read, discuss, etc.) • Tools and resources • Outputs • Advantages • Makes design explicit • Maps out design • Sharable with others • Good at activity level • Use • Mind mapping tools – CompendiumLD, CMap, Freemind • Pen, paper and stickers

  32. Tutor costs

  33. Working between the views Course map Pedagogy profile Learning outcomes Course dimensions Task swimlane

  34. Modeling with data-derived views • What happens to course performance, if… • Include more collaboration • Decrease the amount of tutor support • Increase use of Web 2.0 tools? 5 conceptual views • What are the cost implications of… • Including more online assessment • More student-generated content • Introducing use of SecondLife? Course Business Models project Mick Jones, Andrew Russell, Paul Mundin, Peter Wilson

  35. Cons Weighing it all up Pros • Makes design explicit • Foregrounds specific aspects of the design • Acts as a scaffold/guide to the design process • Views act as a shared dialogic mediating artefact • Comparative analysis • Check points and reflection • The power of sharing and discussing • Design is a complex process! • Understanding the views • Recognising their limitations • The dangers of a formulaic approach • Time to master/appropriate • The difficulty of shifting entrenched practice • Still to be empirically validated

  36. Dialogue and collaboration A space for sharing and discussing learning and teaching ideas Application of web 2.0 practice Examples for teachers & learners to share/discuss A space for collaboration & communication Helps develop skills needed for engaging with new technologies’

  37. Quick language guide Cloud: Anything to do with learning and teaching Cloudscape: A collection of clouds Activity stream: Latest activities on a Cloudscape or people Favourites: Vote for things your like Follow: Cloudscapes, Clouds or people RSS feeds: For Cloudscapes, Clouds & people Attend: Conferences & workshops

  38. Conferences and workshops

  39. Flash debates Virtual desk research Virtual reading circles Evolving patterns of user behaviour Expert elicitation

  40. Cloudworks leaflet Help Cloudworks the movie! http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2457 Using Cloudworks Cloudscape http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/1911

  41. Take a digital walking tour Using cloudworks Cloudscapes The Cloudworks Cloudquest Browse Clouds and Cloudscapes Free search Explore user profiles Look at current events Contribute to the Flash debates Push the boat out – create a Cloud 

  42. Open Delivery – Use of OER • Basic definition • The open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes (UNESCO 2002) • Broader definition • Learning resources • Courseware, content modules, learning objects, learner support & assessment tools, online learning communities • Resources to support teachers • Tools for teachers and support materials to enable them to create, adapt and use OER; training materials for teachers • Resources to assure the quality of education and educational practices (UNESCO 2004)

  43. Open Educational Resource movement Open Learning Initiative

  44. Pedagogically rich

  45. Olnet: Open Learning network Network • From producing open resources to use of open resources • Build capacity • Find evidence • Refine the issues Research Fellowships Conole, McAndrew & Demtriadis, Forthcoming

  46. Making reuse possible Conole, McAndrew & Demitriadis, Forthcoming

  47. Explicit design

  48. Design, use, reuse Design Design Uses Repurposes & deposits Deposits Uses OER OER Teacher B Learner A Learner B Teacher A Creates Chooses Deposits Quiz + beginners route Quiz + advanced route

  49. A vision of transformation Beyond content – focus on activity and use Learners as self-directed and autonomous More of a focus on sharing, refinement, iteration, critical reflection OER as a potential catalyst to transforming educational practice Improvements in social inclusion, quality and innovation