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    3. What is DNA fingerprinting? DNA fingerprinting: is a technique used to assist in the identification of individuals using only samples of their DNA

    4. DNA types used in DNA fingerprinting repetitive ("repeat") sequences of DNA that are highly variable (polymorphic) called variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) (Minisatellite) that characterized by: VNTRs are interspersed throughout the human genome ( at many chromosomes). A tandem repeat is a short sequence of DNA (5-65 bp) that is repeated many times (5-65 bp)n at a specific chromosomal locus. ex: 5'-TTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGG.. TTAGGG -'3

    5. VNTR characterization's continued: The numbers of these tandem repeats ( of each VNTR locus) are variable, which resulting in variations in it's length between individuals. Each variant acts as an inherited allele. Because these VNTR loci have many alleles that exist in several dozen forms in population

    6. VNTR characterization's continued: Individual may inherit a certain number of repeats at one VNTR locus from their mother (one allele), and a different number of repeats at the same locus, from their father (another allele) that commonly results in a two-allele pattern BUT infrequently A one-allele pattern can occur if the two parental alleles are the same

    8. VNTRs vary from person to person It is possible that two individuals may have the same inherited alleles (allele patterns) at one or two (even 3) VNTR loci.

    9. Uses of DNA fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting are often used for Personal identification Criminal identification Paternity/Maternity question Relationship studies

    10. Source of DNA for DNA fingerprinting DNA can be obtained from many different sources Blood Hair Saliva Buccal smear Semen Body tissue cells Methods of DNA fingerprinting Southern blotting PCR-based assay