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Agenda. 1. Announcements 2. Bellringer 3. Review: Observations/Inference 4. Scientific Inquiry PPT 5. Scientific Inquiry Activity. Review: What are observations?. Observing = using senses to gather information Quantitative Observations Deal with numbers , amounts Example: 97 o F

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agenda
Agenda
  • 1. Announcements
  • 2. Bellringer
  • 3. Review: Observations/Inference
  • 4. Scientific Inquiry PPT
  • 5. Scientific Inquiry Activity
review what are observations
Review: What are observations?
  • Observing = using senses to gather information
    • Quantitative Observations
      • Deal with numbers, amounts
      • Example: 97 oF
    • Qualitative Observations
      • Deal with descriptions
      • Example: very warm
slide3

Observations

Inferences

the things that make you go hmmm
The things that make you go hmmm????

Picture it. Everyday you go for a walk around the lake. There are so many animals and plants. You often hear frogs croaking and hopping along the path. You and your family have been going there for years.

Then suddenly you notice something unusual

a day at the lake
A day at the lake!!
  • Here is what you see!!
slide6

Steps of

the

Scientific Method

what is scientific inquiry
What is scientific inquiry?
  • You see something happen, you ask why?
  • You want to make something happen, you ask how?
  • Science is a tool for answering why and how.
slide8
The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence.
slide9

Scientific Method

Problem/Question

Observation/Research

Formulate a Hypothesis

Experiment

Collect and Analyze Results

Conclusion

Communicate the Results

steps of the scientific method
Steps of the Scientific Method

1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.

steps of the scientific method1
Steps of the Scientific Method

2. Observation/Research: Make observations and research your topic of interest.

observations
Observations
  • Any information collected with the senses.
      • Quantitative – measureable or countable
          • 3 meters long
      • Qualitative – describable, not measureable
          • red flowers
topic scientific inquiry hypotheses
Topic: Scientific Inquiry (Hypotheses)
  • EQ: What are the steps of scientific inquiry? (ISN 21)
steps of the scientific method2
Steps of the Scientific Method

3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question.

: If _______, then _____ statements

example of a hypothesis
Example of a Hypothesis
  • If I leave home 10 minutes early, then I will get to school on time.
  • If I study for 2 hours per week, then I will do better in science class.
what is a hypothesis
What is a hypothesis?
  • A tentative explanation that can be tested and is based on observation or scientific knowledge
  • Used to investigate a scientific question
hypotheses
Hypotheses
  • If your hypothesis is not proven correct then you simply have answered your question. The next step is to begin the process again.
hypotheses1
Hypotheses
  • As new observations are collected original thoughts can change. Science is constantly changing.
summarizing activity
Summarizing Activity
  • A. On (ISN pg 20) copy this table exactly as you see it on the next screen
steps of the scientific method3
Steps of the Scientific Method

4. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure.

Include a detailed materials list.

The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).

not so fast
Not so fast!!
  • Before you begin the experiment, there are certain things we have to look for
  • These are called
  • There are two types of variables
  • A. Test/Independent variable-the thing you will change
  • B. Outcome/Dependent variable:-what you observed happened.
  • C. Controls- the group you will compare to

variables

test independent variables are
Test/Independent variables are…
  • What is being tested
  • What is being changed
  • The ‘cause’ of a change
outcome dependent variables are
Outcome/ Dependent variables are…
  • What is observed
  • What is measured
  • The ‘effect’ caused by the independent variable
steps of the scientific method4
Steps of the Scientific Method

5. Collect and Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed.

Confirm the results by retesting.

Include tables, graphs, and photographs.

steps of the scientific method5
Steps of the Scientific Method

6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis.

Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.

steps of the scientific method6
Steps of the Scientific Method

7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience.

Expect questions from the audience.

observation research
Observation/Research

John researches the areas of baking and fermentation and tries to come up with a way to test his question.

He keeps all of his information on this topic in a journal.

problem question
Problem/Question

John wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf?

problem question1
Problem/Question

John watches his grandmother bake bread. He ask his grandmother what makes the bread rise.

She explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar.

formulate a hypothesis
Formulate a Hypothesis

After talking with his teacher and conducting further research, he comes up with a hypothesis.

“If more sugar is added, then the bread will rise higher.”

experiment
Experiment

His teacher helps him come up with a procedureand list of needed materials.

She discusses with John how to determine the control group.

experiment1
Experiment

John writes out his procedure for his experiment along with a materials list in his journal. He has both of these checked by his teacher where she checks for any safety concerns.

experiment2
Experiment

Once again, John gathers his materials and carries out his experiment.

.

collect and analyze results
Collect and Analyze Results

John comes up with a table he can use to record his data.

John gets all his materials together and carries out his experiment.

collect and analyze results1
Collect and Analyze Results

John examines his data and notices that his control worked the best in this experiment, but not significantly better than 100g. of sugar.

size of baked bread lxwxh cm 3
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3

Size of Bread Loaf (cm3)

Trials

Control group

conclusion
Conclusion

John rejects his hypothesis, but decides to re-test using sugar amounts between 50g. and 100g.

conclusion1
Conclusion

John finds that 70g. of sugar produces the largest loaf.

His hypothesis is accepted.

communicate the results
Communicate the Results

John tells his grandmother about his findings and prepares to present his project in Science class.

think you can name all seven steps
Think you can name all seven steps?

Collect and Analyze Results

Formulate a Hypothesis

Communicate the Results

Observation/Research

Problem/Question

Experiment

Conclusion

homework
Homework:
  • A. Create a visual vocabulary sheet on the scientific method:
  • 1. Picture representing each step
  • 2. Explanation in your own words to describe the step.

Problem/Question

Observation/Research

Formulate a Hypothesis

Experiment

Collect and Analyze Results

Conclusion

Communicate the Results

application of the scientific method
Application of the Scientific Method
  • Problem:
  • You recently purchased a new plant from your hardware store. You water the plant everyday according to the directions, and notice the plant is beginning to wilt.
  • Apply the steps of the scientific method to this situation. Be prepared to share with the class
slide44
Let’s put our knowledge of the Scientific Method to a realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.
caution
Caution!

Be careful how you use effect and affect.

Effect is usually a noun and affect, a verb.

“ The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.”

“How does sugar affect the rising of bread?”

slide46
John talks with his teacher and she gives him a Experimental Design Diagram to help him set up his investigation.
hypothesis
Hypothesis

The hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

Note: These variables will be defined in the next few slides.

independent variable
Independent Variable

The independent, or test variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter.

John is going to use 25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his experiment.

dependent variable
Dependent Variable

The dependent, or outcome variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable.

In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread.

control group
Control Group

In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison.

The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.

control group1
Control Group

The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested.

All experiments should have a control group.

control group2
Control Group

Because his grandmother always used 50g. of sugar in her recipe, John is going to use that amount in his control group.

constants
Constants

John’s teacher reminds him to keep all other factors the same so that any observed changes in the bread can be attributed to the variation in the amount of sugar.

constants1
Constants

The constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.

constants2
Constants

They might include:

Other ingredients to the bread recipe, oven used, rise time, brand of ingredients, cooking time, type of pan used, air temperature and humidity where the bread was rising, oven temperature, age of the yeast…

trials
Trials

Trials refer to replicate groups that are exposed to the same conditions in an experiment.

John is going to test each sugar variable 3 times.

size of baked bread lxwxh cm 31
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3

Size of Bread Loaf (cm3)

Trials

Control group

slide62

Observe your

world and come

up with a question

to answer using the

Scientific Method!