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Tanzania Education System. School Ownership. Public Schools owned by the Government Community Schools owned by the local community together with the Government Privately owned schools. Education System. 2-7-4-2-3+ Pre-primary 2yrs Age between 5&6 yrs Primary 7yrs Secondary 4yrs

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School ownership
School Ownership

  • Public Schools owned by the Government

  • Community Schools owned by the local community together with the Government

  • Privately owned schools

Education system
Education System


Pre-primary 2yrs Age between 5&6 yrs

Primary 7yrs

Secondary 4yrs

Higher (A) level Secondary 2yrs

Tertiary 3+yrs

Structure of the Tanzanian Education System



Diploma in Education

(2 years)

TTC (Cert)


Technical College


(Diploma--3 years)




Pre -Primary






Primary School

"O"-Level "A"-Level

Degree Courses






















World of Work





















Acc. Clerks

Diploma in:

O-Level Biases:

Bus. Admin

-- Accountancy








--Water Resource

--Home Econ



--Business Admin

& Veterinary



(3 years)

Distant Learning--Open University








All Exams written and

CSTC--Civil Service Training Centre

administered by the

FDC--Folk Development College

National Examination

Standard 7

Form 4

Form 6

TTC--Teacher Training College

Council of Tanzania




Basic education

Basic Education

Basic Education Includes:

Pre-Primary Education

Primary Education

Secondary Education

Teachers Colleges / Vocational Colleges

Primary education medium of instruction is swahili there are currently about 15856 primary schools
PRIMARY EDUCATION(medium of Instruction is Swahili)(There are currently about 15856 primary schools)

  • Primary Education is a seven year education cycle after Pre-Primary.

  • t is universal and compulsory to all children from the age of 7 years.

  • Begins with STD I, on entry, and ends with STD VII in the final year.

  • Std VII examination is a Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE), marking completion of the primary education cycle and it is used for selection of students into secondary education.

Secondary education medium of instruction is english there are more than 4875 secondary schools
SECONDARY EDUCATION(medium of instruction is English)(There are more than 4875 secondary schools)

  • The 1st cycle is a 4 – year O – Level secondary education. The O – level cycle begins with Form 1 and ends with Form 4 final examination.

  • Selection and enrollment in O – level government and non – government secondary schools is made on the basis of a pre-set national standard cut-off points of performance in National Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE).

Secondary education con td


The 2nd cycle is a 2 – year program of A- Level secondary education. The A – level has Forms 5 and 6.

(Selection and enrollment in advanced level secondary education is based on prescribed performance level in the relevant A-level subject combinations after attainment of appropriate credits in the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE)).

Students with higher credits are selected for tertiary Education

Others join Teachers Colleges and other Higher Learning Technical Colleges both public and privately owned

-Others join privately owned colleges

Teacher education there are 34 teachers colleges
TEACHER EDUCATION(There are 34 teachers Colleges)

  • Teachers Colleges / Vocational Colleges offer courses leading to Certificate awards in respective fields to those with O-level certificates and Diploma awards for those with A-level certificates.

  • Minimum admission requirement for Certificate and Diploma courses are determined by the form IV and form VI examination passes respectively.

Management administration of education
Management & Administration of Education

  • Two ministries coordinate and manage the Education Sector: MoEVT and PMO-RALG (TAMISEMI)

M o evt roles

  • Curriculum Development : Implements through its agency Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE).

  • Policy and Quality Control of Education

  • Responsible for Teachers Training Colleges

  • Examinations: Implements through its examination agency The National Examination Council (NECTA)

Pmo ralg tamisemi roles

  • Management of School Infrastructure

  • Employs and Manages Human Resource in Schools

  • Works Closely with Community School building’s construction and Asset acquirement

  • Works closely with MoEVT

Pmo ralg tamisemi structure


Regional Education officer who works closely with the regional Development Director

District Education Office (DEO) for secondary and DEO for Primary the two of them are under the REO but works closely with the District Development Director

  • Principal / Head of School (HOS) / Headmaster / Headmistress / Mkuu wa Shule

    • Responsible for all school administration decisions

    • Is supervized by respective DEO

  • Deputy Principal / Secondmaster / Secondmistress / Mkuu wa Shule Msaidizi

    • Responsible for the school when HOS is away

    • Responsible for day to day operations management and discipline

    • Internal Administrator for teaching and non-teaching staff

  • Academic Master / Mtaaluma wa Shule

    • Responsible for logistics of the school, timetable, supplies (such as chalk, paper, dusters, filing of records, student files, scheme of work), and coordinating school exams

  • Classmaster / Classmistress / Mlezi wa Darasa / Mkuu wa Shule

    • Tutor assigned to a particular class or stream

    • Responsible for supervising weekly tests, recording final marks, and filling out character assessment forms

  • Teacher on Duty (TOD) / Mwalimu wa Zamu

    • Rotating tutor position responsible for all student-related matters for a week at school

    • Examples of duties: Giving permission to leave school, school cleanliness, attendance, discipline, making sure meal time goes smoothly, bed-checks

  • Discipline Master / Mwalimu wa Nidhamu

    • First step in discipline process

  • Sports Tutor / Mwalimu wa Mchezo

    • Responsible for sports activities and equipment

Other supporting positions
Other supporting positions … / Mkuu wa Shule

  • Student leaders – prefects and monitors

  • Storekeeper / Boharia

  • Maintenance tutor / Mwalimu wa matengenezo

  • Accountant / Mhasibu

  • Personal Secretary / Katibu Muhtasi

  • Office Attendants / Wahudumu

  • Cooks / Wapishi

  • Guards / Walinzi

Questions?? / Mkuu wa Shule

Paradigm shift

Paradigm Shift / Mkuu wa Shule



Secondary education curriculum

Secondary Education Curriculum / Mkuu wa Shule

Ordinary Level (Forms 1-4) Students are required to study at least 7 subjects These include:

Civics, Geography, English, Biology

History, Kiswahili and Basic Mathematics

2. Advanced Level (Forms 5 - 6) a student specializes in a combination of three subjects (minimum )

The curriculum review cycle in Tanzania is 8 years. Review of O-level syllabi is over, that of A-level is in progress.

Secondary education curriculum cont d

Secondary Education Curriculum / Mkuu wa ShuleCont’d

The existing review cycle is due to;

Serious social problems i.e. HIV/AIDS, Poor gender relations, environmental destruction

Serious scientific and technological changes in the world i.e. information and communication technology

Serious changes in the pedagogy and teaching/learning methods

Major shift in curriculum paradigm

What do you envisage to be the roles of students and those of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

1. Teacher centered Vs Learner centered.

2. Content Vs Competence.

3. Knowledge inheritance Vs Knowledge construction.

4. Product Vs Process.

5. End of lesson evaluation Vs Classroom assessment.

6. Behaviorism theory of learning Vs Constructivism theory.

7. Memorization of facts Vs Higher order thinking skills.

Secondary education curriculum cont d1

Secondary Education Curriculum of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?Cont’d

Elements of the reviewed curriculum:

Competence development

Learner-Centered teaching

Co-operative learning

Assessment and Constructivism

Secondary education curriculum cont d2

Secondary Education Curriculum of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?Cont’d

Competences placed in the reviewed

curriculumfalls into 6 main groups:



Creative and critical thinking


Interpersonal competences

Self learning/Independent learning competence

Communication of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

The focus is on improving learners understanding of the language demands in the required areas of learning. As such the learner shall be able to:

  • Use a range of language experiences for developing knowledge of a subject area

  • Convey and use information, instructions, ideas and feelings appropriately and effectively in a range of different social and cultural context

  • Use language for different audiences and purposes relevant to oneself and the subject area

  • Understand and use the vocabulary, structures and forms of expressions which characterize each area of study.

Numeracy of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

Basic mathematics skills and numeracy are fundamental for strengthening in all other fields of learning. Through this competence students shall have the ability to:

  • Organize information to support logic and reasoning

  • Recognize and use numerical patterns and relationships confidentially and competently

  • Recognize, understand, analyse and respond to information which is presented in numerical and mathematical forms such as graphs, tables and charts as applied within the subject area.

  • Use a range of instruments including electronics confidently and competently.

  • Provide basic estimates and calculations accurately and proficiently

Crreative and critical thinking
Crreative and critical thinking of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

This competence consists of two aspects:

  • Analytical-involving critical evaluation of data, identifying and defining problems, identifying probable causes and suggesting possible solutions.

  • Conceptual-involving ability to think in abstract terms to see a big picture and and understand how the different parts fit together.

Technology of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

Being competent in Technology students

will appreciate the value and limitation of

technology in society and participate in the

shaping of public policies related to

technological change

Technology cont d
Technology Cont’d of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

As such learners will develop abilities to:

  • Realize their roles and responsibilities related to technological changes

  • Develop modern view of technology and appreciate its value and limitation in the society

  • Make decisions related to technological developments for positive development of the individual and society.

  • Make appropriate use of technology in solving problems at the individual and community level.

    In particular the competence helps in finding and gathering information from multiple sources and apply that information creatively to specific tasks and problems

Interpersonal competencies
Interpersonal Competencies of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

Elements of Learner-centeredness in teaching.

  • The learner learns by doing a variety of logical and planned activities

  • The lesson is built on what the learner already knows

  • Learner past experiences are respected

  • The learner seek knowledge by interacting with the teacher, the peer, the T/L materials and the subject content

  • Teaching and Assessment are done by covering all the 6 levels of the cognitive domain

  • The teacher is a facilitator of learning rather than a provider of knowledge

Self learning independent learning competence
Self learning/Independent learning competence of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

Perceptions on cbtl
Perceptions on CBTL of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

  • The main thrust of the shift of Paradigm was to put the competence –based curriculum at the heart of what is taught and learned along with constructivist methods of delivering subject content

  • CBTL aims at engaging students in a learning culture

  • Through CBTL Students will work harder than their teachers and will develop motivation, self-discipline and self-awareness to become successful learners in terms of outcomes.

  • CBTL promotes integrated learning and makes the classroom and the school in general an active learning community.

Teacher s role in cbtl

Teacher’s Role in CBTL of teachers in the following teaching and learning approaches?

Unlike in content-based T/L, the teacher has no role of- a direct knowledge transmitter Instead:

The teacher is to influence cognitive development and knowledge construction

To facilitate learning through use of guidance strategies and provision of tools such as problem solving and inquiry-based learning activities.

Generally, the teacher’s roles in CBTL approach are Motivator, Facilitator and class Manager.