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POETRY-1 (ENG403)

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  1. POETRY-1 (ENG403) LECTURE – 15

  2. THE PURITAN AGE JOHN MILTON

  3. POLITICAL BACKGROUND (1) • Queen Elizabeth- 1603 • James 1 (1603- 1625) • Scottland • Patriotic unity • People resented taxes, alliance withSpain • Middle Class clashed with monarchy • Dissolved 3 parliaments (1604, 1614, 1621) • Imposition of customs, money grants, right of speech

  4. POLITICAL BACKGROUND (2) • Charles 1 • Popular • Deceitfulness & wrong headedness • Henriietta Maria/ France • Buckingham as Lord Chancellor • Gave in the petition of civil rights (1628) • No taxation/imprisonment/billeting • 11 years

  5. POLITICAL BACKGROUND (3) • Archbishops punished Puritans • Civil war 1642- 1648 • Royalists/Cavaliers/Catholics • Parliamentary Forces/Puritans • Sentenced to death in 1649 • The Common Wealth (1649- 1653) • Scotland proclaimed Charles II • Cromwell took step & succeeded in 1651 • Parliament/dissolved

  6. POLITICAL BACKGROUND (4) • Cromwell/Lord Protector • Strong foreign policy • Monarchy by 1658 • He died in 1658 • Restored monarchy under Charles ll

  7. SOCIAL BACKGROUND • Horse racing • Bear baiting • The sport of the cock-pit • Theatrical performance

  8. SOCIAL BACKGROUND/ THE PURITANS • Puritans for King & Court were a symbol of • Spiritual pride • Hypocrisy • Rebellion • Tyranny • The Typical Puritan • High ideals • Tolerant of differences of Opinion • Its spirit was a noble force • it saved England's national ideals • Encouraged the pilgrim fathers

  9. GREATEST WRITERS • ENGLISH WRITERS • John Milton • Bunyan • OTHER FIELDS • Bacon in Philosophy • W. Harvey in medical science • John Napier in mathematics • Inigo Jones in architecture

  10. LITERATURE OF THE PURITAN AGE • Relaxing in vigor/ Transition • exuberant gaiety & imaginative freedom • artificial cheer , philosophic melancholy & sobriety • Temperament changed • Less originality in poetry of thought & emotions • Correctness of form • Intellectual play of fancy • Fashionably short • Affected language • Triviality of subject matter

  11. THE SCHOOL OF SPENCER • Giles Fletcher (1583-1623) • Famous work is “Christ victore, Triumph, Earth over & after death. • Phineas Fletcher (1542-1648) • wrote many Spenserian pastorals & allegories. Famous work is “The Purple Island” • William Browne • George Wither

  12. THE METAPHYSICAL SCHOOL • John Donne • Love songs, hymns, elegies, holy sonnets • George Herbert • Richard Crashaw • Henry Vaughan • The characteristics of poetry were as follows: • Far fetched ideas. • Full of logic & reasoning. • Heterogeneous ideas are combined. • Theme like love is experimented like science.

  13. THE CAVALIER POETS • Herrick Robert • Richard Lovelace • Sir John Suckling • Thomas Carew. • Followers of Ben Johnson • The Cavalier means (Royalist who fought on the side of the king during the civil war). • Pseudo classicist. They only followed Ben in rules & regulation

  14. JOHN MILTON(1608-1674) • Milton was a Prominent writer in the Puritan Age. • Combines the spirit of Renaissance & Reformation. • Musical versification, spirit of freedom & morality in his poetry. • A great scholar of Hebrew language • Early poetry. Sonnets & hymns

  15. JOHN MILTON (1) • English poet, pamphleteer, and historian • Considered the most significant English author after William Shakespeare • Born in London on December 9,1608 • 2nd son of John & Sara • Wealthy family; second house • Law-writer/scrivener; composed music • Went to St. Paul’s school in 1620 • Christ’s College, Cambridge (1625-1632) • ‘The Lady of Christ’ for his features

  16. JOHN MILTON (2) • B. A in 1629 • M. A in 1632 • Gave up his plan to be a priest • Wrote poetry in Latin, Italian & English • Spent 6 years in country home 1632-1638 • L’ Allegro, Il Penseroso, Comus, Lycidas • Travelled to Italy & France (1630s) • Met Hugo Grotius & Galileo Galilei • References in Paradise Lost • Moved to Horton, Buchinghamshire

  17. JOHN MILTON (3) • Back to London (1639) • Set up a school with his nephews • Marriage to Mary Powell (1642) • Came back in 1645 • 4 children • Civil War: Oliver Cromwell & Charles 1 • 20 year: no poetic work • Puritan: a series of Pamphlets/Civil rights • During Civil War in 1642-1649; a Latin secretary to Cromwell.

  18. JOHN MILTON (4) • Gave up teaching in 1647 • The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649) • Common wealth Government/Foreign sec. • Milton became completely blind. (1651) • Cromwell’s death; Friendless • His wife & daughter turned against him • His wife died (1652) • Marriage to Katherine woodcock (1656) • She died in 1658

  19. JOHN MILTON (5) • Restoration changed his fortune • He was arrested/fined • Marriage to Elizabeth Minshull (1663) • Milton wrote his greatest poetical works Paradise lost, Paradise Regained & Samson Agonistes. • Married thrice; unhappy marital life • Died, November 8, 1674 St. Giles Buckinghamshire • Buried beside his father. • Teeth and hair were robbed.

  20. MILTON’S WORKS • First Period till 1640 • Second Period, 1640-1660 • Third Period 1660-1674

  21. FIRST PERIOD • Major Poems • L’ Allegro • Il Penseroso • Comus • Arcades • Lycidas • Minor poems

  22. SECOND PERIOD • Prose • Anti- Prelatical Tracts • Divorce Tracts • Educational Pamphlets • Political Controversial Works • Civil Rights • Poetry • Sonnets

  23. THIRD PERIOD • Paradise Lost • Paradise Regain’d • Samson Agonistes

  24. CHARACTERISTICS OF HIS WORKS • Master of English Blank Verse • Cosmic Sweep of Theme • Sublimity of Execution • Sharp concreteness • Intensity of Religious Idealism • Full of Classical Allusions to Literature • Profound Scholarship • Organ-roll of linked Vowel Sounds

  25. CHARACTERISTICS OF HIS WORKS • Power of delineating character • Vivid accurate description • Presentation of Nature • Simple, sensuous and Passionate • His rule of Poetry

  26. THE PARADISE LOST • Printed in 1667; 10 books • Printed in 1674; 12 books His ambition: write an epic • Vacation Exercise • Lycidas • Epitaphium Damonis

  27. LITERARY SOURCES • Scriptual & Talmudic writings • The Illiad, Oddyssey & Aeneid • St. Augustine’s Civitas Deis • Claudian’s De Raptu Proserpine • Vondel’s Lucifer • Caedman • Shakespeare • Marlowe • Giles Fletcher • Phineas Fletcher

  28. DOCTRINAL CONTENT • The Creation of World is Purposeful. • Christ is the son of God but second to him. • Absolute Freedom/Human will • Epitome: belief in Reformed Catholicism

  29. COSMOGRAPHY • Copernican system • Ptolemaic system • Plato, Dante & Aquinas • Better represented his poetry

  30. METER • Blank verse • Heroic Verse without Rhyme

  31. ARGUMENT • The Fall of Satan & his angels; the burning lake of Hell; the palace Pandemonium • In each book one aspect is described in detail. Book Vll and book X is divided into two parts

  32. REVIEW OF LECTURE 15 • The Puritan Age • Political and Social background • Notable Writers • John Milton • His Literary Career • The Paradise Lost • Literary Sources • Meter • Argument