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Teaching Objective. Master the key words and structures, and learn something about the capital cities in the world. Help the students to find out the noticeable characteristics of the capital cities of some countries. Teaching Objectives. Vocabulary.

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    1. Teaching Objective Master the key words and structures, and learn something about the capital cities in the world. Help the students to find out the noticeable characteristics of the capital cities of some countries. Teaching Objectives Vocabulary associate characteristic connection decay empire imagine intimate reputation wonder all but be worthwhile doing by no means for the sake of have an advantage over lay out make law speak of … as take pride in thanks to Key Points

    2. Teaching Objective As…, so… It is +adj. +to do… Structures Key Points Reading Skills How to find the main idea of a paragraph Teaching Procedures Lead-in; Reading of the Text; Exercises; Listening and Speaking; Phonetics; Use the Right Word; Grammar Tips; Hands-on Exploration; Practical Reading; Practical Writing

    3. U2 Lead In Text Study Consolidation Listening and Speaking Language Application Drills for PRETCO Test

    4. Lead In _main Lead In 1. Beijing 2. London 3. Washington D. C. 4. Paris 5. Topic-related Words and Phrases

    5. Text Study_main Text Study 1. Global Reading Questions and Answers Text Analysis 2. Detailed Reading

    6. Consolidation Consolidation 1. Dictation 2. Words and Phrases 3. Listening Practice 4. Group Discussion

    7. Listening and Speaking-main Listening and Speaking 1. Listening 2. Speaking 3. Phonetics

    8. Language Application-main Language Application Practical Writing Minutes • Language Points 2. Basic Patterns 3. Do It Yourself Practical Reading

    9. Drills for PRETCO Test-main Drills for PRETCO Test 1. Listening Comprehension 2. Vocabulary and Structure 3. Translation

    10. Lead In –Beijing 1 Beijing

    11. Lead In –Beijing 2 As the ancient capital of several dynasties in China’s history, Beijing , also known as Peking by the Western world before 1949, first served as the capital city for Yan Kingdom over 3,000 years ago. On October 1st, 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed in Tian’anmen Square the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital. Situated in the northeastern part of China as an independently administered municipal district, Beijing has a whole area of 16,808 sq km, with 18 districts and counties. Population in Beijing is more than 13 million. The climate in Beijing is of the continental type, with cold and dry winters and hot summers. It is not only a political but also a cultural, commercial, economic and financial center.

    12. London1 London London, the capital of the United Kingdom and of England, is recognized as one of the key “world cities”. The word “London” can be used in different senses for administrative purposes: the City of London refers to the original nucleus, while Greater London refers to an urban area made up of the City of London and 32 London boroughs.

    13. London2 Today London generates over 17% of the GDP of the UK’s economy, the world’s fourth largest, and is a major financial center along with New York and Tokyo. For several centuries, London has been one of the most influential powers in politics, finance, arts and fashion and remains so today. London is also a major port, 65km from the mouth of the River Thames.

    14. Washington D. C. Washington D. C. Washington D.C. is the capital of the United States, coextensive with the District of Columbia, on the Potomac River. The city is the center of a metropolitan area extending into Maryland and Virginia. Washington is the legislative, administrative, and judicial center of the United States but has little industry; its business is government. The city is also a major tourist attraction and a cultural center.

    15. Paris1 Paris Capital of France, on the Seine River, Paris is the commercial and industrial focus of France and a cultural and intellectual center of international renown. Known worldwide as the “City of Light”, Paris has been a major tourist destination for centuries. The city is renowned for the beauty of its architecture, its urban perspectives and avenues, as well as the wealth of its museums.

    16. Paris2 Paris is also regarded as the heart of the French-speaking world and has retained a strong international position, hosting the headquarters of the OECD and the UNESCO among others. This, combined with its financial, business, political, and tourism activities, have turned Paris into one of the major transportation hubs on Earth, and Paris is seen as one of a handful of “world cities”.

    17. Topic-related Words and Phrases 1 Topic-related Words and Phrases city center: the main shopping or business area in a city, called “downtown” in American English city fathers: the group of people who govern a city city planning: the study of the way cities work, so that the roads, houses, services, etc. can be provided effectively. City planning is getting more and more important with the development of economy and society. Now the government of almost any big city has a department of city planning.

    18. Questions and Answers1 Questions and Answers Directions: Skim the paragraphs for answers to the following questions. Paragraph 1: Question: What can we conclude about the capital city of a country? Answer: The capital city of a country is not necessarily the greatest city of the country, but it is certainly the most important city in the country. Usually the capital city is the political center because the central government is there.

    19. Questions and Answers2 Paragraph 2: Question: Why is it that the existence of a city is often longer than that of an empire? Answer: Cities rise and fall like empires, but a city may still be there after the empires owning it have vanished. Question: What can make some famous cities in the world decay and disappear? Answer: Earthquakes, fires, wars and diseases can make some famous cities in the world decay and disappear.

    20. Questions and Answers3 Paragraph 3: Question: In what respects does a city resemble a man? Answer: Like man, cities also have their own peculiar qualities and characteristics. Question: Do other cities have their own peculiar characteristics? Answer: Every city, whether it is a capital or not, acquires some peculiar characteristics as it grows and develops.

    21. Paragraph 4: Questions and Answers4 Question: What advantages does a capital city have over other cities? Answer: Since the capital is the center of government and political power, it attracts large numbers of ambitious people. Their efforts in various fields make the capital a busy center of human activities. Question: In what way is the capital city made worthy of its rank as the capital? Answer: The city’s layout is usually very carefully planned so that magnificent buildings and parks can be built to make the city worthy of its rank as the capital.

    22. Paragraph 5: Questions and Answers4 Question: What is still a subject for discussion regarding the central status of the capital? Answer: It remains a subject for discussion whether it is a good thing to have only one such center in a nation, or whether it would be better to have other cities imitate the capital. Question: What does the last sentence of the paragraph imply? Answer: It implies that the population in the capital city may increase too fast to be under control.

    23. Text Analysis 1 Text Analysis Paragraphs Main Ideas Para.1 The concept of a capital. Para.2 The long history of some cities. Para.3 Some peculiar qualities of cities. Para.4 The advantages of a capital city. Para.5 The problems concerning capital cities.

    24. Detailed Reading1 Reading Most capital cities are well-known for their special characteristics. A variety of activities and an interestingly mixed population mean they have advantages over other cities. However, some capital cities are facing a population explosion. But is overpopulation the only hazard?

    25. Detailed Reading2 Capital Cities Every country has its capital, which is its chief city and usually its seat of government, though sometimes, as in the U.S.A., the political capital may not be the greatest city. Washington D.C., where the laws are made, is much smaller than New York, the commercial capital of the country. Canberra, the capital of Australia, is perhaps the youngest, as well as the smallest, of the world’s important cities, but every thing is being done to make it the most beautiful.

    26. Detailed Reading3 Cities, like empires, rise and fall, but the existence of a city is often longer than that of the empires of which it is the capital. It is difficult to imagine that Rome, Athens, Paris, or London can decay and disappear as some of the world’s famous cities have done. Earthquakes, fires, wars and diseases, have all had their share in the destruction of what were once among the wonders of the world; but nothing yet has prevented the above-mentioned four capitals from continuing to be centres of civilization.

    27. Detailed Reading4 Rome, where Shelley said “That ages, empires, and religions there / Lie buried in the ravage they have wrought”, is full of the glory of the past; the seven hills upon which it stood in olden times are all but levelled now; beneath its ancient temples, today carefully guarded and protected from further decay, history goes down deep. And yet, when one arrives in the city by rail or air, and motors along broad avenues past tall modern buildings to a first-class hotel, it is not the influence of the past but of the present and the future that makes itself felt.

    28. Detailed Reading5 As with men, so with cities: they have their own peculiar qualities, their characteristics, which are sometimes those of the people who live in them. Paris is gay, and we think of it as a city of pleasure and gaiety, though at many times in the past it has been the very opposite of this. London, thanks to the English climate, has gained the reputation of being foggy, in spite of the fact that really thick fogs are by no means frequent. New York is spoken of as a city of skyscrapers. With Vienna we associate good music. But something of the sort might be said about every city, whether a capital or not: as it grows and develops we come to recognize its peculiar characteristics.

    29. Detailed Reading6 A capital city has special advantages over others. Being the centre of government and power, it attracts large numbers of people, many of them ambitious, and these, by their efforts in various directions — in the arts, in the professions, in trade — make it a more important centre for human activities than any ordinary city in the country can be. Theatres, banks, libraries, government buildings, museums, universities, great churches, business offices, etc., are built; public parks are laid out; and great pride is taken in making the city worthy of its rank as capital. Ideas also come in from outside.

    30. Detailed Reading7 The representatives of foreign governments, business men and tourists from abroad, all help to swell the population, and to influence the life of the city. And it is this connection with other countries, largely due to the presence of so many men and women of other nations, that makes a capital city international. Whether it is a good thing to have only one such centre in a nation, or whether, for the sake of better understanding, it would be worthwhile encouraging other cities to imitate the capital, is still a subject for discussion. Meanwhile, a more serious problem is how to prevent the city population from increasing beyond reasonable limits.

    31. characteristic characteristic: n.a special and easily recognized quality of someone or something 特征,特性 e.g. A useful characteristic of the cat is its ability to catch and kill mice. The newly invented device has the following characteristics.

    32. advantage advantage: n. a favorable circumstance优势 Antonym: disadvantage e.g. As we all know, computers have both advantages and disadvantages. These are the advantages of radios over TV. Collocation: take advantage of

    33. explosion explosion: n. 1) (a loud noise caused by) an act of exploding爆炸; 爆炸声 e.g. population explosion 人口爆炸 information explosion 信息爆炸 2) a sudden bursting out (of the stated feeling or its expression) 发出(感情或表达该感情的言语) e.g. explosions of great anger 勃然大怒 explosions of loud laughter 一下子哄堂大笑 Extended words: explode, explosive

    34. hazard hazard: 1. n. a danger 危险 e.g. a hazard to health 对健康有危险 2. v. risk; put in danger 冒险;置身危险中 e.g. He hazarded all his money in stocks. Extended word: hazardous

    35. seat seat: n. a place of a particular power or activity; center中心;所在地 e.g. a famous university and seat of learning Paris is the seat of the French government.

    36. commercial commercial: a. of, related to or used in commerce 商业的;商务的 e.g. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China This singer only makes commercial records. Nowadays, commercial banks and state-owned banks coexist and compete with each other. commerce, commercialize Extended words:

    37. imagine imagine:v. form a picture of sb. or sth. in mind 想象; 假设 e.g. It is hard to imagine what life would be like in 2050. I can imagine the scene clearly in my mind. Can you imagine George cooking the dinner? Extended words: imagination, imaginative, imaginary

    38. existence existence:n. the state of existing 存在 e.g. Mary doesn’t believe in the existence of God. The new country came into existence in 1918. The new country has been in existence since 1918. I’ve never heard anything so silly during my whole existence!

    39. a share in a share in: a part in(起)一份作用 e.g. I had no share in this trick: I had nothing to do with it. If you want a share in/of the pay, you’ll have to do your fair share of the work.

    40. ravage ravage: n. the damage caused by something (often used in the plural)(遭破坏的)残迹;灾害 e.g. We visited an old building that has survived the ravages of time. the ravages of war/fire

    41. all but all but: almost, nearly e.g. The game was all but over by the time we arrived. He all but died of the serious wounds.

    42. Cities like empires... Cities, like empires, rise and fall, but the existence of a city is often longer than that of the empires of which it is the capital. Paraphrase: Like empires, cities also flourish and decline, but the history of a city is often longer than that of the empires owning it.

    43. … than that … than that of the empires of which it is the capital that is a substitute for the wordexistence e.g. Mary’s handwriting is far better than that (=the handwriting) of Tony’s. The mass of the sun is much larger than that (=the mass) of the earth.

    44. … have all had… “…, have all had their share in the destruction…” Paraphrase: …, have all contributed to the destruction…

    45. decay decay: v. 1) (cause to) go through destructive chemical changes or go bad (使)腐败,腐烂 e.g. Sugar can decay teeth. Her decayed tooth had to be taken out. 2) fall to a lower or worse state; lose health, power, activity, etc. 衰败,衰落 e.g. History sometimes seems to teach us that all nations decay in the course of time. After the birth of a new civilization, it may flourish, culminate and then start decaying. n. the action or state of decaying e.g. That university has fallen into decay in the last 100 years.

    46. “… history “…, history goes down deep.” Paraphrase: …, history lies deep underground in some cities.

    47. “…it is not the “…, it is not the influence of the past but of the present and the future that makes itself felt.” Paraphrase: …, what is impressive is not the influence of the past but that of the present and the future.

    48. as…so… as…, so…:如同…的情况一样,如同…一样 e.g. As you sow, so will you reap. As food nourishes the blood, so does reading nourish the mind.

    49. thanks to thanks to: because of; owing to; on account of 因为,由于 e.g. It was thanks to your stupidity that we lost the game. Thanks to the policy of reform and opening, the country has undergone fast development.

    50. peculiar peculiar: a. belonging to the individual特有的,独特的 e.g. This style of cooking is peculiar to the southwest of the country. This food has a peculiar taste. Extended word: peculiarity