課節目標 • 說出飛機氣壓儀錶 (高度計、速度計) 及指南針的運作原理 • 指出儀錶誤差或損毀對飛行的影響
飛機儀錶配對 • 速度計 Airspeed Indicator (ASI) • 飛行姿態儀 Attitude Indicator • 垂直速度計 Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) • 傾斜轉彎指示器 Turn Coordinator • 高度計 Altimeter • 航向指出器 Heading Indicator
飛機儀錶分類 • 動/靜壓 (Pitot/Static) 驅動系統 • 陀螺儀 (Gyroscope)驅動系統
動/靜壓 (PITOT/STATIC)驅動系統 • 速度計 Airspeed Indicator (ASI) • 垂直速度計 Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) • 高度計 Altimeter
動/靜壓(PITOT/STATIC)驅動系統 • 空速管 PitotTube • 靜壓口 Static Port
速度計 AIRSPEED INDICATOR (ASI) http://youtu.be/lyyc_CurfUs From 1:04 to 3:20
垂直速度計 VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI) http://youtu.be/ERP2nKgWpxk
陀螺儀(GYROSCOPE)驅動系統 Regardless of the position of its base, a gyro tends to remain rigid in space, with its axis of rotation pointed in a constant direction.
陀螺儀(GYROSCOPE)驅動系統 • 飛行姿態儀 Attitude Indicator • 傾斜轉彎指示器 Turn Coordinator • 航向指出器 Heading Indicator
傾斜轉彎指出器Turn Coordinator If inadequate right rudder is applied in a right turn, a slip results. Too much right rudder causes the aircraft to skid through the turn. Centering the ball results in a coordinated turn.
航向指出器 Heading indicator The heading indicator (or directional gyro) is fundamentally a mechanical instrument designed to facilitate the use of the magnetic compass. A heading indicator displays headings based on a 360° azimuth, with the final zero omitted. For example, a 6 represents 060°, while a 21 indicates 210°. The adjustment knob is used to align the heading indicator with the magnetic compass.
磁羅盤 Magnetic Compass The magnetic compass, which is usually the only direction-seeking instrument in the airplane, is simple in construction. It contains two steel magnetized needles fastened to a float, around which is mounted a compass card. The needles are parallel, with their north-seeking ends pointing in the same direction. The compass card has letters for cardinal headings, and each 30° interval is represented by a number, the last zero of which is omitted.
儀錶誤差或損毀對飛行影響 • 空速管 Pitot Tube • 靜壓口 Static Port Blockage may be caused by moisture (including ice), dirt, or even insects.
儀錶誤差或損毀對飛行影響 airspeed indicator reading decreases to zero because the airspeed indicator senses no difference between ram and static air pressure Air already in the system will vent through the drain hole, and the remaining pressure will drop to ambient (outside) air pressure.
儀錶誤差或損毀對飛行影響 If both the pitot tube opening and the drain hole should become clogged simultaneously, then the pressure in the pitot tube is trapped. No change is noted on the airspeed indication should the airspeed increase or decrease. Read more http://www.flightlearnings.com/2010/07/20/blocked-pitot-system/
儀錶誤差或損毀對飛行影響 If both the pitot tube opening and the drain hole should become clogged simultaneously, then the pressure in the pitot tube is trapped. No change is noted on the airspeed indication should the airspeed increase or decrease. If the static port is unblocked and the aircraft should change altitude, then a change is noted on the ASI. The change is not related to a change in airspeed but a change in static pressure. The total pressure in the pitot tube does not change due to the blockage; however, the static pressure will change. Read more http://youtu.be/lyyc_CurfUs http://www.flightlearnings.com/2010/07/20/blocked-pitot-system/ From 3:22 to 6:05
儀錶誤差或損毀對飛行影響 ASI operatebut inaccurate VSIcontinuous zero indication altimeter to freeze Airspeed indications are slower than the actual speed when the airplane is operated above the altitude where the static ports became blocked, because the trapped static pressure is higher than normal for that altitude. When operating at a lower altitude, a faster than actual airspeed is displayed due to the relatively low static pressure trapped in the system. If the static system becomes blocked but the pitot tube remains clear
本課節完 Presented by: Maggie Tsui