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Tools of a Biologist. Microscopes. Micro= Scope= Small -to view. A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects. In biology it is used to view living…. cells and unicellular organisms. Compound Light Microscope. Eyepiece / Ocular lens X10. Nose . Arm.

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  • Micro= Scope=
    • Small -to view

A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects.

In biology it is used to view living….

cells and unicellular organisms.

compound light microscope
Compound Light Microscope

Eyepiece / Ocular lens




Revolving lenses

Stage and

Stage clips

Course Adjustment knob:

Moves stage up and down

Fine adjustment knob:

Fine focuses the image for your eyes


High power objective

Medium power objective lens

Low power objective lens.

Longest in length

Blue in color


Shortest lens

Red in color


Medium in length

Yellow in color

X 10



regulates the

amount of light that passes through the stage

Light source



There are 3 types of microscopes are used in biology:

1. Compound light microscope


look through 2 lenses at the same time in order to properly magnify the organism.


Total magnification:

low power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x4



medium power:

ocular lens x10

med objective x10



high power:

ocular lens x10

high objective x40




Compound light microscope:


-light must pass through the

diaphragm and through the


-object must be “thin” or

transparent so the light can

pass through it.


Is a method of adding color to a cell so that the cell and its structures can be seen more clearly through a microscope.

limit of resolution
Limit of Resolution

The limit of resolution is the point at which you see an item most clearly.

Any magnification above or below that point will results in the object looking blurry.

type 2 stereoscope
Type 2: Stereoscope

-Used to view the surface of objects which are too large for light to pass through them.

-Uses to lights to illuminate the surface of the object.

-Stereo means

“3 dimensional”

-Provides a 3-D detailed look at the surface of an object.


-look through

      • 2 ocular lenses
  • -magnifies between x10 to x60
type 3 electron microscopes
Type 3: Electron Microscopes

Uses electrons to form an image and NOT light

Has a very high limit of resolution.

-can see items very clearly at any magnification

-can magnify up to 500,000x and still be clear

  • Object is placed in a vacuum
    • No air
    • No oxygen
    • Organism is DEAD

Two types of electron microscopes:

1. T.E.M. ~ Transmission Electron Microscope

  • Produces a 2-D, black and white image of inside of a cell.

Produces a 3-D, black and white image of the surface of an object.

2. S.E.M. ~ Scanning Electron Microscope

additional tools of a biologist
Additional tools of a biologist:

Tool used to separate the components of a mixture by their different densities.

  • Chromatography: