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The Cold War. Period 3. Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech. In Britain, 1946, Churchill made his Iron curtain speech He talks about how Europe need to be united in order to ensure it’s safety He states that Communism is a growing challenge, and wants to stop the spread of it.

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the cold war

The Cold War

Period 3

slide2

Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech

In Britain, 1946, Churchill made his Iron curtain speech

He talks about how Europe need to be united in order to ensure it’s safety

He states that Communism is a growing challenge, and wants to stop the spread of it

slide3

Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech

  • Churchill also talks about how he wants to stop communism but doesn’t want to go to war with the USSR
  • So he says that they need a settlement with Russia
slide4

Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech

  • What caused this event is the communist threat to Europe
  • This speech was so important because it established Britain's view on communism
the doctrine had taken place in 1947 countries involved was britain and greece and u s a

Truman Doctrine

The Doctrine had taken place in 1947,countries involved was Britain and Greece and U.S.A.

slide6
Communism was spreading to Greece
  • The British are protecting them from turning
  • The British cant afford to protect them anymore
  • President Truman had paid for the British soldiers to stay in Greece
  • He told the Americans that it was there DUTY to interfere in Europe
slide7
It toke place in Greece
  • The U.S.A. didn’t want Greece to fall to communism and become a threat
  • The U.S.A. want to stop communism from spread and starting another world war that we world cant afford
  • Terms are doctrine: a belief

Congress: the American parliament

Truman Doctrine

the marshall plan

The Marshall Plan

Happened during June 1947

George Marshall and Joseph Stalin

Took place in Europe

slide9

What happened

  • The fact that every country in Europe was poor caused the Marshall plan.
  • George Marshall said that America should give $17 billion of aid to get Europe's economy going.
  • America did not want to give money for Marshall aid and enslaved weakened capital countries
slide10
When the communists took power in Czechoslovakia congress got scared and voted for the Marshall aid on march 31st 1948
  • Open expansion-

Enslaving weakened

capitalist countries

the berlin b lockade
The Berlin Blockade

The USSR disagreed with Britain and the USA about what to do with Germany. So Germany was split into four zones. Berlin was in the Russian zone, but Berlin was also divided into four sections.

what happened
What happened

The American army wanted to fight its way into Berlin but that would have caused a war. President Truman chose to get Berlin supplies by air support. As we kept sending supplies to Berlin things were bad at first but they got better and soon Stalin reopened the borders.

causes
Causes
  • Cold war-it was just getting started so there was a lot of tension between countries
  • Different- goals-Stalin wanted to destroy Germany and the USA and Britain wanted to rebuild Germany.
  • Bizonia- Russians were taking machinery from Germany back to the USSR while Britain and the USA tried to get Germanys industry going. They joined their sections of Germany to make one called Bi-Zonia.
  • American aid- Russia started to block the American aid coming into Berlin
  • New Currency- America and France made west Germany and made a new currency.
results of the blockade and airlift
Results of the blockade and airlift
  • Cold war got worse and almost caused an all out war.
  • Germany split up and became east and west Germany.
  • In 1949 the allies set up NATO and when the NATO countries surrounded Russia, the Warsaw pact(an alliance of communist states) was formed.
  • After Berlin, there was an arms race between USA and USSR for world domination.
slide16

Nato

created two years after WWII on March 4 1947

NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Nato promised to safe guard the freedom , common heritage and civilization of their peoples

continuous and effective self help and mutual aid to maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity

the warsaw pact is formed
The Warsaw Pact is Formed
  • The Warsaw Pact was formed May 14, 1955
  • The countries involved were the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria
slide18
Why?
  • The Warsaw Pact was a response to NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), which was seen as a direct threat
  • NATO was a treaty made between 28 countries, including the United States, West Germany, and the UK.
what happened1
What Happened?
  • The Warsaw Pact calls on members to defend other member countries that are attacked by an outside force
  • Warsaw Pact was officially the “Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance”
  • Dominated by the Soviet Union
  • It set up a unified military command under Marshal Ivan S. Konev, a military leader from the Soviet Union
nuclear arms race
Nuclear Arms Race

The nuclear arms race was central to the Cold War.

  • Both America and Russia massively built up their stockpiles of nuclear weapons.
  • The world greatly changed when USA exploded the H-bomb in 1952.
    • This one bomb was smaller in size than the Hiroshima atomic bomb but 2500 times more powerful.
    • The Russians produced an H-bomb in 1953 and the world became a much more dangerous place.
  • USA produced a bomber - the B52 - thatcould fly 6,000 miles and deliver a nuclear pay-load. Such a development required massive financial backing from the government - something which America could afford to do and which Russia could not. Russia concentrated on producing bigger bombs - a far more cost effective procedure.
  • In October 1957, the world was introduced to the fear of a missile attack when Sputnikwas launched.
    • This was to lead to ICBM’s : Inter-continental ballistic missiles.
    • As a result, America built the DEWline around the Artic -Defence and Early Warning system.
slide21

During the 1960’s the theory of MAD developed - Mutually Assured Destruction. This meant that if Russia attacked the west, the west would make sure that they would suitably retaliate i.e. there would be no winners.

  • SALT begin to limit nuclear weapons.
  • Détente – relaxed tensions during the 1970s
  • Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty: Many nations agreed not to develop nuclear weapons or to stop proliferation (spread) of them.
anti soviet movements of the 1950s

Hungary

  • When? -- Hungarian revolts against communism began in 1956.
  • Why? -- Hungary wanted to be independent from Russia’s communist control.
    • Poverty-Hungarians were poor, yet much of the food and industrial goods they produced was sent to Russia.
    • Russian Control-The Hungarians were very patriotic, and they hated Russian control – which included censorship, the vicious secret police (AVH) and Russian control of what the schools taught.
    • Catholic Church-The Hungarians were religious, but the Communist Party had banned religion, and put the leader of the Catholic Church in prison.
    • Help from the West-Hungarians thought that the United Nations or the new US president, Eisenhower, would help them.

Anti-Soviet Movements of the 1950s.

events
Events
  • October 23 – Riots broke out and civilians smashed statues of Stalin and attacked the secret police.
  • October 24 – Imre Nagy (New Prime Minister) asked Khrushchev to remove Russian troops from Hungary.
  • October 28 – Khrushchev pulled troops from Budapest.
  • November 4 – Russia opened fire on Hungarian people in Budapest.
    • Over 27,000 people were killed.

Destroyed Stalin statue

effects
Effects
  • Russia remained in power under the Iron Curtain in Hungary.
  • Many Hungarians fled to Austria to avoid being under Russia’s communist power.
  • People in the west were terrified and surprised by Russia’s actions.
  • The West realised it could do nothing about the Iron Curtain countries – but this made Western leaders more determined to ‘contain’ communism.

Thousands of Hungarians confronted Russian tanks.

the space race of the cold war

The Space Race of the Cold war.

By: Luke Burger of period 9.

The Space Race was the race to the moon and other scientific achievements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

soviet achievements
Soviet achievements.
  • First satellite launched into space; Spuntnik! (1957)
  • Yuri Gagarin is the first person to enter space. (1961) (Alan Shepard is the first American to enter space, a month after Yuri.)
  • Soviets send out second space flight that orbits the Earth 16 times. (1961)
  • Soviets launch first woman and three-man crew, and do first space walk. (1963-1964)
u s holds greatest achievement
U.S. holds greatest achievement.
  • In 1958 the U.S. founded the space program N.A.S.A. Though seemingly behind the Soviets, the U.S. in 1969 successfully launched and guided Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin to the moon. Beating the Soviets, Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. The U.S. claims victory in the Space Race and a major victory in the Cold War.
khrushchev and nixon have war of words
Khrushchev and Nixon have war of words.
  • The events of Khrushchev’s visit to the United States took place in September of 1959.
  • The people involved were Richard Nixon, Nikita Khrushchev, and Dwight Eisenhower.

Richard Nixon!

Khrushchev!

what took place
What took place?
  • Khrushchev visited the United States to tour it as a sign of good will and peace towards the US.
  • Nixon and Khrushchev had heated debates about the principles of Communism vs. Capitalism.
  • Nixon said that the US wanted the Soviets to see the ‘right to choose’.
  • Khrushchev demanded that both sides remove “foreign bases”.
  • Both sides threatened each other with the promise of missiles.
  • Khrushchev threw a tantrum about not being able to go to Disney world.
slide30
These events took place in the US, but later Nixon visited the USSR for the same reasons.
  • This event was caused by tensions during the Cold War, and it was a gesture of good will and peace towards the US.
  • This event was important to the Cold War, because it shows that both sides don’t want war, and they were willing to show peace towards each other. Though the talks the leaders had were generally ineffective.
slide31

U2 Incident

-On May 1, 1960 an American U2 spy plane was shot down above Russia

-At first the Americans said it was a weather balloon that had gone off course

-But when the USSR put the pilot of the U2 plane on trial the US admitted that it was a spy plane.

slide32

U2 Incident

  • The US admitted it was a spy plane and at the Paris Summit they promised not to fly anymore spy planes over Russia if they didn’t
  • But the Americans refused to apologize for the plane which made the Russians angry
  • When the Americans wouldn’t apologize the Paris Summit broke down and the Cold War continued
slide33

U2 Incident

  • -This Event was important because it caused the breakdown of the peace talks at the Paris Summit which could have ended the Cold War but instead both the Americans and Russians went home and the war continued
  • U2- An american plane used for spying.
  • Paris Summit- A meeting between the USSR and USA to discuss an end to the Cold War
berlin wall
Berlin Wall
  • In 1961 august 17, construction of the wall begins
  • The person that was involved it the making

Of the wall was Khrushchev

  • Took place in Berlin between the east and the west
slide35

The Berlin Wall

1. Growing tension

Kennedy tried to get tough on Communism. He financed the forces fighting the Communists in Vietnam and Laos, and in 1961 he helped an invasion of Cuba.

2. Refugees

East Germany was poor and under strict rule. West Berlin was wealthy and free. Many East Germans worked in West Berlin, and saw this. By 1961, 3 million had fled to the west through Berlin. As the Cold War tension grew, more left, fearing that the border would be closed – by August 1961, the flow was 1,800 a day.

This was an embarrassment to Russia, which claimed that Communism was better.

Also, many who left were skilled workers.

3. Sabotage

The Russians claimed that the Americans used West Berlin for spying and sabotage.

slide36
Started nuclear testing
  • Hundreds of east Berliners died trying to cross it

By: Nicole Sheldon

slide37

Cuban Misseles Crisis

*October 14,1962 to November 20, 1962

*People/Countries involved: -America [Kennedy]

-Cuba [Castro]

-Russia (through Cuba) [Khrushchev]

*Took place in Cuba and in the ocean between Southern US and Cuba

*Causes: -tensions between Russian and America

-Rise of Castro

-Bay of Pigs

slide38

What happened??

*Missile base sighted in Cuba

*Kennedy set up a naval blockade of Cuba

*Russia sent ships to aid Cuba

*US offered to remove their missile bases

in Turkey if Russia removed the ones in Cuba

*Russia and US came to an agreement

*Russian bombers left Cuba;

US lifted naval blockade

slide39

Why is this important??

*this was the beginning of the end of the Cold War

Important definitions/terms:

-The Bay of Pigs: Failed attempt by “anti-Castro Cuban” (with the help of the US) to invade Cuba [April 1961]

slide40

The Prague Spring

August 1968-The Prague Spring soviet troops crushed Czechoslovakian revolt

Alexander Dubcek-ledthe Czechoslovakian government

Antonin Novotny was the party leader at the Writer’s Union Congress

Brezhnev was the soviet leader.

slide41

What had happened

  • In Czechoslovakia
  • The Prague, forces rules on Slovaks, over ridding local autonomy.
  • Dubcek wanted Czechoslovakian Communist Party to remain a predominant party, but also wanted totalitarian aspect of party to be reduced.
  • Communist Party members were given rights.
  • Dubcek assured Moscow that Czechoslovakia would remain in the Warsaw Pact and they had nothing to worry about regarding the forms.
  • Warsaw Pact invaded Czechoslovakia to reassert the authority of Moscow.
slide42
Alexander Dubcek wanted to democratizes the nation and lessen with the stranglehold Moscow had on the other nations.
  • Dubcek brought a reform that would bring back a degree of political democracy and greater personal freedom.
  • Moscow did not like Dubcek’s idea and invaded Czechoslovakia.
slide43

Détente and SALT

  • The Sino-Soviet split that lead to the three superpowers started in the mid 1960’s and went into the late 1970’s
  • There was three major superpowers involved. Russia, United States, and Later China.
  • Leonid Brezhnev was the leader of Russia, Lyndon Johnson And later Richard Nixon for the U.S
slide44

Détente and SALT

  • Before the split Western Europe had planned to detach themselves from the Americans.
  • After the Sino-Soviet split the Chinese were encouraged to have an alliance with America.
  • Soon creating the Sino-American alliance
slide45

Détente and SALT

  • The signing of SALT 1, SALT 2, and the Helsinki Accords between Russian and the Chinese allowed open dialogue between the three countries.
  • Eventually the Détente ended because the countries had a lot of different purposes and expectations for it.
d tente s a l t
Détente + S.A.L.T.
  • Russia and U.S. both ally with China, causing a détente
  • S.A.L.T. was of two treaties; 1 and 2.
  • S.A.L.T. I – Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty.
    • Limited ABM’s (Anti-Ballistic missile defenses) to 100 on each side. One to protect their capital city, and one to protect their nuclear missiles.
  • S.A.L.T. II
    • Set equal limits to missile launchers and strategic bombs but left out Cruise missiles. Was soon renegotiated by Jimmy Carter to reduce Soviet Missiles.

S.A.L.T. I

S.A.L.T. II

end of the cold war
End of the Cold war
  • August 1991 was the End of Soviet Union & the end of the Cold War.
  • Soviet Union wanted a better economy & Freedom.
  • Poland voted for a noncommunist to join the legislature. Soon communist government began to fall & spread all over.
demand for freedom
Demand for freedom.
  • Communist dictatorships began to fall one by one.
  • By the fall of 1989 East & West Germans were tearing down the Berlin Wall.
  • Demand for Freedom spread to the Soviet Union.
  • The Baltic States declare independence.
fall of soviet union
Fall Of Soviet Union.
  • Gorbachev intended to maintain the territorial integrity of the Soviet Union. Kept them under central control.
  • In December 1991, Ukraine, Byelorussia, & Russia declared independence & the Soviet Union was gone.
  • Gorbachev was a president without a country.
slide50

When Mikhail Gorbachev assumed the reins of power in the Soviet Union in 1985, no one predicted the revolution he would bring. A dedicated reformer, Gorbachev introduced the policies of glasnost and perestroika to the USSR.

  • Glasnost, or openness, meant a greater willingness on the part of Soviet officials to allow western ideas and goods into the USSR. Perestroika was an initiative that allowed limited market incentives to Soviet citizens.
    • Goal was to stimulate economic growth and political discussion
effects1
Effects
  • Tore down Berlin Wall – End of Cold War
  • Economic and Political Reforms
    • More personal freedoms under glasnost
    • Allowed elements of capitalism