A Management System to Develop Occupational Health & Safety in Ground Control Operations of Underground Mines KazemOraee, PhD Professor, StirlingUniversity, UK ArashGoodarzi, MSc Research Fellow, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, Iran NikzadOraee, MSc Imperial College London, UK
Mining can be a dangerous occupation with many potential hazards. - more than 104,000 miners have died in mining accidents in the United Stated since 1900. - In the same period, some 631,000 U.S. soldiers and others were killed in wars.
Mining accident: A silent war? Most of occurred from 1900 to 1978 when laws and control systemswere ineffective.
Coal provides 30% of primary energy needs Over 7 million people are employed in this sector globally
1 Fatal Accident RatioStudy – Tye/Pearson triangle 3 Injury 50 Injury requiring first-aid 80 property damage accident 400 Non-injury / near misses Based on a study of almost 1,000,000accidents in the British Industry.
ACCIDENTS COSTS = According to ILO calculations: 7,500 days are lost for every death or permanent disability: Iceberg Model 7500 × 130 $ ≈ 1,000,000 $ direct costs a death or permanent total disability ≈ indirect costs 10,000,000 $
Peter Senge Former director of the Center for Organizational Learning at the MIT Sloan School of Management Therefore: OHSAS provides easy to use guidance and a proven method that will develop a systematic approach to managing hazards. It has been used in other industries.
In USA Coal Mines Number M Ton Since 1970: - Coal production has increased by 75% . - Fatal injuries have decreased by 93%.
Underground mining still has one of the highest fatal injury rates. More than five times the national average
Historically, roof and rib falls have been the greatest cause of fatalities in underground coal mines. They remain the greatest safety problem. Between 1999 and 2008, nearly 40% of all underground fatalities were attributed to roof, rib, and face falls.
Poor roof and rib conditions lead operators in many mines to use roof support systems to prevent accidents. Recent advances in technology have reduced the total number of such accidents drastically.
When failures occur, they usually result in severe consequences.
Types of Hazards in Ground Control: -Risks of rock falls -Entry to confined spaces -Working on unstable platforms -Working in noisy and dusty environments -Use of heavy machinery and electrical apparatus
- Ground Control operators are also subject to increasedstress. • - This can cause psychosomatic diseases.
Managing these risks requires a management regime that includes strict adherence to operational codes of practice and an enshrined culture of safety. Accident reports show that the major contributing factor in most rock fall accidents is the failure to adequately manageknown risks due to the lack of a systematic process.
Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 (OHSAS). An international occupational health and safety management standard. Objective: To develop occupational health and safety at the workplace.
OHSAS 18001 has been developed to be compatible with the ISO 9001:2000 (Quality) and ISO 14001:2004 (Environmental) management systems. It facilitates the integration of quality, environmental and safety management systems by organizations.
OHSAS complies with applicable legal requirements, though compliance with this Standard does not result in immunity from legal obligations. It was developed by a selection of leading trade bodies and international standards and certification bodies to address a gap where no third-party certifiable international standard exists.
Definitions: -Occupational health and safety (OHS) measures take into account all conditions and factors that affect, or could • affect the health and safety of employees or others. A management system is a set of inter-related elements, to be used to establish objectives, and a policy to achieve those objectives. OHSAS An OHS management system is part of the overall organization’s management.
A management system includes an organizational structure, planning activities (for example, risk assessment and the setting of objectives), responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources. Checking Policy Operation Planning
The OHSAS Standard is based on the methodology known as Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Deming cycle William Edwards Deming 1900-1993
The Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle Establish standards based on assesment and consensus Implementplans to achieve objectives and standards Reviewagainst objectives and standards and takeappropriate action Measureprogressagainst plans and compliancewith standards
Progress of Standard Establish standards Establish standards Establish standards Implementplans Implement plans Implementplans Reviewagainst objectives Reviewagainst objectives Review against objectives Measure progress Measure progress Measureprogress 1 2 3
Checking: • - Performance measurement and monitoring • - Evaluation of compliance • - Incident investigation, nonconformity, • corrective action and preventive action (title only) • - Incident investigation • - Nonconformity, corrective and preventive action • - Control of records • - Internal audit Elements of OHSAS 18001 Management review OHS policy • Implementation and operation: • Resources, roles, responsibility, • accountability and authority • - Competence, training and awareness • - Communication, participation • and consultation • - Documentation • - Control of documents • - Operational control • - Emergency preparedness and response Planning: • Hazard identification, risk • assessment and determining controls • Legal and other requirements • Objectives and programme(s)
1- Scope 2- Reference publications 3- Terms and definitions 4- OH&S Management System Requirements 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-3-1 4-4-1 4-5-1 4-3-2 4-5-2 4-4-2 4-3-3 4-5-3 4-4-3 4-5-4 4-4-4 4-5-5 4-4-5 4-4-6 4-4-7
1.Scope and objectives • - The scope of the OHS management system defines the objectives and its boundaries. - It does not state specific health and safety performance criteria - nor does it give detailed specifications for the design of a management system. Our Goal is Zero Accidents
4.2.Policy The ultimate goal is determined by top management. Within the defined scope, for the nature and scale of the OHS risks to all persons workingunder the control of the organization. The objectives should be consistent with the OHS policy and be: - specific - measurable -achievable - reasonable -time bounded
Planning is the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan for all activities. 4.3.Planning The mostimportant aspects of planning: • - hazard identification - risk assessment - determination of necessary controls
- OHS Risk Assessment: The structured and systematic identificationof hazards. - Decision making process: Consequences of accidents and the probability of exposure. It includes analyzing and comparingalternative methods and choosing the less harmful one.
Mines are complex workplaces and the range of hazards and potential hazards are extensive. Potential exposure is even more extensive in ground control operations. Mines of all kinds are increasingly concerned with achieving and demonstrating sound health and safety performance.
Risk Management Stages: aggressive behavior offensive odour 1 parasites sharp teeth • Identifying Hazards uncontrolled movements sharp claws injury to public 2 nasal irritation transmission of parasites bites • Risk Assessment public nuisance cuts training washed 3 well fed powder • Risks Controls collar and leash Well groomed
Methods and Sources of Risk Management Risk Management
Efficiency of Risk Control Methods Personal protective equipment an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure.
Conducting a survey of the workplaces will help harmonize, consolidate, and finalize the identification of health hazards. Some key aspects to be considered are: • Physical potential hazards • (noise, vibration, lighting, radiation, heat, and cold) Health hazards • Chemical potential hazards • (dusts, fumes, vapors, mists, liquids, gases, and fibers) • - rock fall • - electrical shock • - machinery accident • Safety issues • - fire and explosion Safety hazards • - working at height • - accident involving hydraulic pressure
Assessing exposure levels is the next step after identifying health hazards in an OHS risk assessment process. It characterizes exposures in terms of their intensity and duration for processes, tasks, and areas. Exposures can be estimated qualitatively or be quantified. A risk assessment worksheet provides the necessary tools to assess risk and therefore avoid it, or to reduce the possibility and percentage of accidents and other risk related incidents. A Typical worksheet Checklists Save Lives
Hazards and Controls Walk or stand on pontoons, not in potential pinch point areas Breaker post should be installed from the out by side of the remaining pillar block toward the pillared out areas Hands off
Hazards and Controls Providing overhead protection to bolter operator by roof screen Shorter cut depths Damage prevention to hoses and controls
4.4.IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION 4.4.1.Resources, roles, responsibility, accountability, and authority - Top management shall take ultimate responsibility for the OHS management system. Required Resources 4.4.2.Competence, training, and awareness OHSAS requires mine operators to provide information to miners about hazards. • - Miners have a right to know about the hazards. • - Miners have the responsibility to know about hazards.
4.4.IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION 4.4.3.Communication, participation and consultation The minimumcontribution by workers: The examination of the roof in the work area prior to commencing work and being alert of changing roof conditions. • 4.4.4.Documentation Documentation provides evidence. • Documentation pyramid for OHSAS Standard
4.4.IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION • 4.4.5.Control of documents -A competent authority is generally authorized to control the ground control plan. 4.4.6.Operational control • Emergency preparedness and response Pre-requests an unplanned roof collapse
4.5.CHECKING • monitoring mechanism 4.5.1.Performance measurement and monitoring OHSAS 18001 requires that OHS performance be monitored on a regular basis. • systematically recorded A good understanding of how the mine is performing with time. • 4.5.2.Evaluation of compliance -Governments employ many inspectors to ensure that operators observe the national and international laws. -The establishment of OHSAS 18001satisfies governments on operators’ adherence to OHS codes.
4.5.CHECKING • 4.5.3.Incident investigation, nonconformity, corrective action, and preventive action Records are essential to demonstrate the satisfactory operation of the safety management system. 4.5.4.Control of records • OHSAS 18001 requires an operator for: Producer for control of records • 4.5.5.Internal audit An organization confirms through internal audit that their OHS management system complies with requirements. 4.6.Management Review Reviews shall include assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for changes to the OHS management system. • Good…better…best
OHSAS 18001 All of De Beers Group's diamond mining operations and Rio Tinto's sites acquired prior to 2005, are certified to OHSAS 18001 standard.
Key Notes: • Safety and health management systems can greatly reduce the number and severityof accidents. • Managers and employees can work together to identify hazards related to Ground Control. • Take a proactive approach: Develop and implement processes, procedures and programs that are preventive. • The benefits: Fewer lost work days, lower accident compensation cost, higher morale and hence improved productivity.