Macedon Ranges Literacy Co-ordinator’s meeting Wednesday 4th May 2011
Speaking and Listening in the ClassroomP- 10 Loddon Mallee Region
Session Outline: Overview of the knowledge we need as professionals. • Knowledge of Oral Language Learning • Knowledge of the Learner • Speaking and Listening in the Classroom • Partnerships Note: This professional learning module will be delivered in two sessions Today and 22nd June 2011
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning Oral language learning supports learning across the curriculum
Knowledge of Oral Language LearningSpeech and Language • Speech = how you say/pronounce the sounds in words with your tongue, lips and teeth • “The Sounds of Speech- the ages and stages of children’s speech”, Speech Pathology Australia handout • References\2.3_The_Sound_of_Speech.pdf • Language = how you understand/say a series of words in a sentence to tell an idea • “Learning to speak and listen- what to expect in the first five years”, Speech Pathology Australia handout • References\2.2_Learning_to_speak_and_listen.pdf
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning Why is Oral Language Important? • Oral language underpins literacy development • Making meaning in speaking, listening, reading and writing depends on underlying oral language abilities • Oral language is the primary mode of learning in the classroom • Oral language involves thinking, knowledge and skills • Oral language is for social interaction and belonging to social groups
Knowledge of Oral Language LearningWhat is Oral Language? • Receptive/Listening Understanding what is said to us • Expressive/Speaking The words we use while speaking • Social Communication The choices that we make about the appropriate use of oral language: when to speak, which words to use, how to say them
Knowledge of Oral Language LearningDeveloping Knowledge of Oral Language By the time students start school they • Have learned the meanings of many words • Use their understanding of how words are used together to make meaningful sentences • Know that intonation and body language add meaning to the message
Do you know? Children in kindergarten will learn up to __ new words per day to as many as _____ words in total by age 6. By Year 1 children are capable of understanding up to approx ______ words. Ref p37 LEP 9 14 000 20 000
Knowledge of Oral Language LearningDeveloping Oral Language Strategies Processing strategies include • Attending • Anticipating • Checking and confirming Comprehension strategies are similar for oral language and reading and include • Making connections • Predicting • Summarising etc
Knowledge of Oral Language LearningDeveloping Oral Language Awareness Metacognition Students need to learn how to apply and control their knowledge and strategies both in their use of oral language and their learning. Eg. Processing skills. During formal talk using eye contact, adapting volume to situation, poise/body language in different situations. Comprehension. Listen to gain information or listening critically to a variety of speakers. What impact does this have for us as teachers? What are implications for our multicultural society? Turn and talk.
Definitions • Phonemes: are the individual sounds each letter of the alphabet makes. • Phonics: is the relationship between letters and sounds in written word form. • Phonemic awareness is having an understanding that each word is made up of a series of phonemes or sounds. • Phonological awareness is the ability to tune into the sound system of our language.
Knowledge of Oral Language LearningWhat is Phonological Awareness? Phonological awareness is the ability to ‘tune into’ the sound system of language Phonological awareness includes: • Word awareness • Identifying syllables • Hearing and saying rhyming words • Identifying individual sounds in words • Blending sounds and segmenting sounds A child’s level of Phonological Awareness is an important predictor of their later reading development (Love & Reilly)
Knowledge of Oral Language Learning Developing Phonological Awareness “The ability to hear sounds within words is essential to reading and writing successfully.” NZ Ministry of Education. Sound Sense The development of phonological awareness underpins the ability to decode and encode print. http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Foundation copy How is this learned or acquired? What are the implications for our ELL students?
Knowledge of the Learner Students arrive at school with a range of oral language experiences. Their ability and willingness to engage in classroom talk can be affected by many different factors. • Turn & Talk • Video 1 • Video 2
Knowledge of the Learner cont’ Most students in years 5-10 are experienced users of spoken language who have learned to communicate in an increasingly complex range of settings and situations They continue to develop an increasing body of knowledge, life experiences and awareness of how language works throughout their school years and beyond.
Knowledge of the Learner cont • By middle years, students are exposed to an increasing variety of oral language contexts, eg. Music, tv, electronic games • Their language and understandings are shaped by peers, technology and the media. . Movie Turn and talk. How can teachers bridge the gap between conversational competence and academic language necessary for school based learning?
Knowledge of the Learner cont. • Positive, caring relationships • Knowing each student’s cultural, linguistic and early childhood background helps to recognise strengths and challenges • Effective teachers identify individual student needs around oral language and are able to differentiate to meet individual needs Oral language underpins all learning.... there must be a sense of urgency What is in place to support teachers knowledge of learners?
Knowledge of the Learner cont.Formative and Summative Assessment The garden analogy If we think of our children as plants … Summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply measuring them. It might be interesting to compare and analyse measurements but, in themselves, these do not affect the growth of the plants. Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the equivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs - directly affecting their growth. Shirley Clarke “Unlocking Formative Assessment” ( 2001
Knowledge of the Learner cont.Oral Language Assessment Process 1.Know expected learning outcomes Lyn Watts scope and sequence, VELS focus statements National curriculum The Key Characteristics of Effective Literacy Teaching P-6 (PDF - 1.2Mb) The Key Characteristics of Effective Literacy Teaching 7 - 10 (PDF - 2.7Mb) 2. Gather data (conversation, video, story re-tell, reading and writing conferences) 3. Analyse and interpret data 4. Make decisions about goal setting 5. Plan for explicit instruction literacy plan, activity plan 6. Personalise
Knowledge of the Learner cont.English Online • Oral language and listening comprehension • Phonemic awareness and phonics • Reading accuracy, comprehension and concepts of print • Writing and spelling • Sample finalised assessment report • ..\References\assessment\eoifinasstsamplerpt.pdf • Other links & demonstrate use
Knowledge of the Learner cont.Other Oral Language Assessment Tools • Language Support Program. DEECD • ..\References\assessment\LSP Observation profile.doc • Record of Oral Language Trish • Let’s Talk About It. Mondo. US (instructions) • Informal assessment, structured assessment (reading) movie • Self assessment and peer assessment • Am I being a good listener? • Checklists, rubrics • Link to Strath self assess.. Reading fluency – simone Communication http://vels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/support/charts/communication.html#listening
Speaking and Listening in the Classroom Learning occurs in a sea of talk James Britton English Educationalist
Effective teachers continually make strategic decisions, respond to instructional needs as flexible problem solvers, and monitor their students’ progress. They design learning tasks that are carefully aligned with their students’ identified learning needs. Ref p 47 Learning Through Talk
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGDescription Quality conversations take place with students daily, using focussed dialogue as the catalyst for teaching and learning. Oral language requires formal and informal experiences to convey and receive meaning. It involves the development and demonstration of knowledge about the appropriate oral language for particular audience and occasions. Speaking and listening involves whole class, small group and individual instruction, and promotes talk with and by individual students. 26
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction • Rich, purposeful speaking and listening opportunities, which are both spontaneous and intentional, are provided so students can formulate and articulate ideas Socratic Circles • Students experience a broad range of speaking and listening activities e.g. public speaking, individual, group and whole class discussion, reports, interviews etc • ‘Talk’ is integral to all domains – eg. reasoning, analysing, debating, persuading, explaining, and reflecting • Vocabulary is intentionally developed to enable students to clearly express opinions, understandings and intentions (Movie – Year 10 Science) 27
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued) • Students are involved in presentations both formal and informal. They are aware of the range of contexts, purposes and audiences (Movie) • Students listen attentively to factual spoken texts and identify topics, retell information accurately, ask clarifying questions, contribute information and justify opinions • The best speaking and listening behaviours are modelled by both students and teachers e.g. eye contact, intonation, expression 28
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued) • Students give their own talks and presentations. They learn from and build on, the ideas of others • Students participate in story telling experiences • Teachers observe and use student experiences to initiate and develop further conversations 29
GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY Role of the teacher MODELLING The teacher demonstrates and explains the literacy focus being taught. This is achieved by thinking aloud the mental processes and modelling the reading, writing, speaking and listening SHARING The teacher continues to demonstrate the literacy focus, encouraging students to contribute ideas and information GUIDING The teacher provides scaffolds for students to use the literacy focus. Teacher provides feedback APPLYING The teacher offers support and encouragement when necessary The student works independently to apply the use of literacy focus DEGREE OF CONTROL Students work with help from the teacher and peers to practise the use of the literacy focus Students contribute ideas and begin to practise the use of the literacy focus in whole class situations 40 The student participates by actively attending to the demonstrations Pearson & Gallagher Role of the student
GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY I’m having a bit of trouble joining in today...I wonder what would happen if I just went and sat there. What would I do if someone just came and sat in my group without saying anything? I would feel a little uncomfortable I think. Perhaps I should say something...I think I might say ‘Can I join your discussion group?’ and see what happens. If I’m having a bit of trouble joining in...what should I say and do? Do you think I should ask or should I just go and sit there? How would I ask? Would I ask before i sat down in the group? Has this happened to you before? Remember when we talked about ways to join a group? Which strategy are you going to try? Did that work for you last time? Role of the teacher MODELLING The teacher demonstrates and explains the literacy focus being taught. This is achieved by thinking aloud the mental processes and modelling the reading, writing, speaking and listening SHARING The teacher continues to demonstrate the literacy focus, encouraging students to contribute ideas and information GUIDING The teacher provides scaffolds for students to use the literacy focus. Teacher provides feedback APPLYING The teacher offers support and encouragement when necessary The student works independently to apply the use of literacy focus DEGREE OF CONTROL Students work with help from the teacher and peers to practise the use of the literacy focus Students contribute ideas and begin to practise the use of the literacy focus in whole class situations The student participates by actively attending to the demonstrations Are you happy with the way you joined the group today? Why do you think it worked for you? Pearson & Gallagher Role of the student
Research • In one study of 1 151 classroom discussions occurring in over 200 eighth and ninth grade classrooms: - 93.31% (1074 discussions) were completely monologic in nature. (teacher centred) - of the 6.69% (77) that included ‘dialogic episodes’ (moments when students directed the conversation), those episodes lasted for an average of 15 seconds. (Nystrand et al. 2003)
LITERACY ELEMENTS SPEAKING & LISTENING OBSERVATION & ASSESSMENT • Read Aloud • Shared Reading • Guided Reading • Independent Reading • Write Aloud • Shared Writing • Guided Writing • Independent Writing
Oral Language in the Classroom cont • Paper folding activity How do we interpret instructions differently?
Oral Language in the Classroom contVocabulary One must be drenched in words, literally soaked in them, to have the right ones form themselves into the proper pattern at the right moment. - Hart Crane
Oral Language in the Classroom contVocabulary Students need a large vocabulary to manage the demands of school learning because words are the tools we use for thinking as well as communicating. Vocabulary is highly correlated with general language ability and is considered to be a predictor of academic success and competence in reading and writing
Oral Language in the Classroom cont.Vocabulary Considerations for teaching • Know which words to teach • “Knowing” a word • Developing word consciousness • Learning about word families • Understanding Grammar • Developing Question structures • Replacing with Pronouns Activity: Up
Word Consciousness To deliberately build word consciousness, teachers should: • Emphasise learning new words - using elaborate and extended language throughout the day • Draw attention to specific words, their meanings, and their use • Use interactive Read Aloud and good literature – EVERY DAY! • Communicate their own appreciation and love of words • Have fun with words and language (word play)
LOVE & REILLY – Expanding vocabulary Vocabulary is crucial to comprehension. All words can activate a huge schema of meaning. Try these: Restaurant Fine the menu, past experiences, cuisine, service, company, chefs, location, transport, wine, expenses, celebration, babysitting weather?, penalty?, health?, success? size? texture?
Oral Language in the Classroom cont Vocabulary It should never be assumed that students understand the language of learning. There are many words across the curriculum that can be confusing to students because they have multiple meanings and can require different responses, eg illustrate can mean draw but it can also mean describe in words.