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ENHANCING WRITING THROUGH ELECTRONIC MATERIAL. Jennie Bautista Moreno Carlos Sifuentes Rodriguez Melisa Valdez Slazar Susana Barrientos Roel Iram Rodriguez Ordoñez. Electronic M aterials.

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enhancing writing through electronic material

ENHANCING WRITING THROUGH ELECTRONIC MATERIAL

Jennie Bautista Moreno

Carlos Sifuentes Rodriguez

Melisa Valdez Slazar

Susana Barrientos Roel

IramRodriguez Ordoñez

electronic m aterials
ElectronicMaterials
  • Are referto material that has beendigitallyprocessed so thattheuserisabletoaccessitthrough a single source, usually a computer.
slide3
Wewillbereferingtothreemajor, iterrelateddimensions of electronicmaterialsthathaveproven beneficial to L2 learning:
  • Hypermedia
  • Multimedia
  • Communication Media
hypermedia hypertext
Hypermedia (Hypertext)
  • Referstothecapacitytomake links between ¨bits¨ofinformation.
  • Internaltothecurrent page.
  • Betweenelements of a particular websiteor CD-ROM.
  • Betweenonesite and anothersiteonthe web.
multimedia
Multimedia
  • Whilethenodeswereoriginallyrestrictedtopieces of text, nowthey can include a variety of media:
  • Statictext
slide10

These multimedia elements can becombined in variousways and can appearautomaticallyorbeaccessedbythereadermaking a deliberateselection.

communication media
Communication Media
  • Interpersonal communication has become a powerful factor inthedevelopment of electronicmaterials.
  • Communication can takeseveralforms:
  • Email
  • Bulletinboards
  • Discussionlists
  • Chat rooms
  • Video conferencing
contribution to language learning
ContributiontoLanguageLearning
  • Howelectronicmaterials can enhancetheexperience of learningtoread in a secondlanguage.
  • Howsuchmaterials can supportthelearning of L2 writing.
  • Howdevelopers can createlearningenvironmentsthatintegrateallthepreviouslydiscussedattributes of electronicmaterials.
enhancing reading through electronic media
Enhancing Reading throughElectronic Media
  • Reading is a highlycomplexactivitythatplays a critical role in theprocess of learninganotherlanguage. Thereaderoperates at manylevels at once, intergating a variety of skills and strategieswhileseekingtoconstructmeaning.
practising lower level skills
PractisingLower-levelSkills
  • Computerizedreadingactivitieshave tended tofocusonthemicroskills, withthecomputerplayingthe role of drillmaster.
  • Poorlydesignedmaterialsmaterials can beunproductive and boring, thereisnevertheless a role forelectronicmaterials in developingtheselower-levelskills.
slide15

Computers can do wellistohelpdevelopautomaticity.

  • Fluentreadersautomaticallyrecognizethemajority of frequentlyusedwordswithoutresortingtophonicanalysisor contextual information.
slide16

L2 readerstendtogive more attentiontolower-levelskillssuch as soundingoutwords, therebydecreasingtheircapacitytofocusonmeaning.

  • Whilemanycomputersprogramsforteachingthese ¨bottom-up¨ skills (uninteresting, repetitive, decontextualizeddrilling).There are somethatattempttoengagestudentsinteractively in activitiesthatinvolveconstantrevising of connectedtextwhichcontainsseveralinstances of thetargeteditem/s.
slide17

Chapelle (1998) suggeststhatanimportantprincipleforelectronicmaterialsdevelopersderivedfromsecondlanguageacquisition (SLA) theoryis ¨input enhancement¨ throughthehighlighting of salientlanguagefeatures.

  • A simple word-processingprogram can beusedtoadvantagebyfocusingstudentsattentiononsignificant.
  • More powerfulprograms (Flash) can beusedtohelpthereadernoticesyntacticunitsbyhighlightingthereasthestudentslistenstothetextbeingread a loud.
slide18

Computers can alsobeusedtoprovidethe more intentional, intensivevocabularypracticeneededby L2 learners.

  • CAVOCA programtakesthelearnerssystematicallythroughthevariousstagesbyexposingthemtocarefullyselected L2 material whichillustratesthesalientfeatures of the new L2 word and/ orthedifferencesbetweenthe L2 word and itsnearest L1 equivalentorcounterpart.
making reading easier
MAKING READING EASIER
  • Hypermedia makes it possible to build into a single page a number or clickable options to support the L2 reader.
  • devices: pop-ups, rollovers, links, menus.
  • Printed pages vs hypermedia page.
on the spot help
On-the-spot help
  • Computersmakelifeeasierfor L2 readers.
  • Hypermedia links vs dictionaries, glossaries.
  • Problem of usingwordtoexplainwords.
  • The GALT uses thistoindividualizethelearningexperience.
supporting comprehension
Supportingcomprehension
  • Chapelle (1998)
  • Shema theory (eg. Carrell 1987)
  • Hypermedia text vs traditional text.
  • Multimedia should be motivated by considerations such as:
developing comprehension strategies
Developing comprehension strategies
  • Proficient readers have a wide range of strategies.
  • Reading and Listening Strategies (REAL)
modelling the genre
MODELLING THE GENRE
  • Whenwriting a text, thewriterneedstoconsiderthepurpose.
  • Electronic media can be usedto introduce L2 writerstothegenres of the target culture and language.
demonstrating the process
DEMONSTRATING THE PROCESS
  • Beforewriting a text, itisusefulforstudentstoseehowsuch a textiscreated. Studentsparticipate in thewritingexperience in collaborationwithco-learners and a teacher.
brainstorming and researching
BRAINSTORMING AND RESEARCHING
  • Beforewriting, thewriterneddstohavesomethingtowriteabout. These ideas can come frombrainstorming, drawingonpreviousexperienceorfromresearching.
drafting
DRAFTING
  • Once thestudentstartstodraft a text, thecomputerbecomes a powerfulresource.
conferencing and revising
CONFERENCING AND REVISING
  • Animportantelement of thewritingprocessisreceivingfeedbackfromothersduringthedraftingstage. Writers are abletoseekhelpfromtheirteacher, theirclassroompeers, fromstudents in otherclasses and in otherlocations and fromunknownothers.
slide30

Itisnotonly in receiving of feedbackthatthelearnerbenefitsfromsuchiteraction, itisalsotheparticipation in theinteractionitself.

editing
EDITING
  • Tools such as spellcheckers, syntaxalerts and autoformattingassist at theeditingstage.