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An Introduction - Smart Grid 101 Chapters 1-3. Chuck Goldman, Project Manager Electricity Markets and Policy Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Roger Levy, Lead Consultant. February 2010. Discussion Outline – Smart Grid 101. Smart Grid 101. 1.0 Define Smart Grid .

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slide1

An Introduction - Smart Grid 101

Chapters 1-3

Chuck Goldman, Project Manager

Electricity Markets and Policy Group

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Roger Levy, Lead Consultant

February 2010

slide4

1.1 Define Smart Grid

If you were to start from scratch today to design an electric system for your community, what would it look like ?

slide5

1.2 Define Smart Grid

Three Questions

What is a “Smart Grid” ?

How is a Smart Grid different from the existing grid ?

Why do we need it?

slide6

1.3 Define Smart Grid

Smart Grid is System Integration

The Smart Grid is a system of information and communication applications integrated with electric generation, transmission, distribution, and end use technologies which will :

[1] enable consumers to manage their usage and chose the most economically efficient offerings

[2] use automation and alternative resources to maintain delivery system reliability and stability, and

[3] utilize the most environmentally gentle renewable, storage, and generationalternatives.

Promote Customer Choice

Improve Reliability

Integrate Renewables

slide7

1.4 Define Smart Grid

  • The Existing Utility Grid
  • Centralized generation
  • Power flows from the utility to the customer
  • Periodic billing

Customer Devices

Meters

Bulk Power Generation

Service Provider

Bulk Power Transmission

Power Distribution

Energy Bill

Cumulative Usage

Substation

slide8

1.5 Define Smart Grid

  • Smart Grid – Adding Generation and Sensors
  • Generation alternatives added throughout the system
  • Power flows both directions between the utility and customer
  • T&D system instrumented with sensors and switches
  • Customers enabled with smart appliances

Smart Appliances

Generation Alternatives

Generation Alternatives

Sensors

Sensors

Sensors

Generation Alternatives

Customer Devices

Meters

Bulk Power Generation

Service Provider

Bulk Power Transmission

Power Distribution

Energy Bill

Cumulative Usage

Substation

slide9

1.6 Define Smart Grid

  • Smart Grid – Adding Communications and Information
  • Information flows link all system elements
  • Expert systems monitor/react to power flows, balance supply and demand
  • Demand-side response requires automated transactions and coordination.

Smart Appliances

Customer Authorized Usage and Billing Information

Service Providers

Generation Alternatives

Generation Alternatives

Sensors

Sensors

Sensors

Generation Alternatives

Customer Devices

Meters

Bulk Power Generation

Service Provider

Bulk Power Transmission

Power Distribution

Energy Bill

Interval readings, voltage, outage and other information

Substation

Price, Reliability, Event Signals, Historical Usage, Alerts, Other Information

slide13

2.1 A Smart Grid Vision

One of Many Visions *

  • ..expand the infrastructure for moving electricity from where it is generated to where it is needed
  • ..accommodate distributed energy from local areas and,
  • Make the grid ‘smart’ so that it can monitor and balance the load,
  • ..capitalize on a massive national fleet of clean plug-in cars.
  • * Al Gore's 'Unified Smart Grid' vision for repowering the USA - will it happen?, November 8, 2008, http://blogs.zdnet.com/collaboration/?p=160

Regulator

Utility

Customer

Cost Recovery

Value, Privacy

Cost Effectiveness,

Economic Efficiency,

Equity

slide14

2.2 A Smart Grid Vision

Basic Questions

  • What problem(s) are you trying to solve: manage future costs, improve reliability, or integrate renewables ?
  • Which perspective(s) are you trying to serve: society, end-user (rate payer), or the utility ?
  • How is the “Smart Grid” different from what you’ve already been doing ?
  • What are the costs and benefits of implementing Smart Grid?
  • Where do you start and what information do you need to proceed: [1] Pilot programs or [2] a Transition Plan ?
slide15

2.3 A Smart Grid Vision

Attributes

  • PHEV’s 2. Advanced Metering 3. Dynamic Rates 4. Sensing 5. Automation 6. Expert Systems 7. New Technology
slide16

2.4 A Smart Grid Vision

Attributes

  • PHEV’s 2. Advanced Metering 3. Dynamic Rates 4. Sensing 5. Automation 6. Expert Systems 7. New Technology
slide17

2.5 A Smart Grid Vision

Attributes

  • PHEV’s 2. Advanced Metering 3. Dynamic Rates 4. Sensing 5. Automation 6. Expert Systems 7. New Technology

Sources

The Smart Grid – Benefits and Challenges, EEI Annual Convention, J.Miller – Modern Grid Strategy Team, June 16, 2008

What will the Smart Grid Look Like ?, A Vision for the Smart Grid., DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, June 2008.

Miscellaneous public reports, press releases, presentations, and private sources.

slide20

3.1 Reliability

Defining Reliability

  • “In brief, reliability has to do with total electric interruptions - complete loss of voltage, not just deformations of the electric sine wave. Reliability indices typically consider such aspects as :
  • the number of customers affected;
  • the connected load;
  • the duration of the interruption measured in seconds, minutes, hours, or days;
  • the amount of power (kVA) interrupted; and
  • the frequency of interruptions. “
  • Source: Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality, ORNL/TM-2004/91, June 2004, pg.3. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/btc/apps/Restructuring/ORNLTM200491FINAL.pdf
slide21

3.2 Reliability

What are the Objectives ?

Reduce the Frequency of outages ?

Reduce Outage Duration ?

Contain the Magnitude / Scope of outages ?

Improve Customer Notification ?

Reduce Unserved kWh ?

Reduce Customer Outage Costs ?

Reduce the Outage Damage Function ?

Improve Reliability Indices ?

Improve Power Quality

2/11/2011

22

slide22

3.3 Reliability

Major Causes of Power Outages in the U.S.

Detroit Edison Example

  • Momentary outages*
  • Result from interference on power lines caused by animal or tree branch contact.
  • Usually last for a few seconds or less.
  • Automatic devices on power lines quickly isolate the problem and typically restore power within moments.
  • Sustained Outages
  • Planned or accidental total loss of power caused by storms, accidents or equipment damage.
  • Usually last more than five minutes.

MOST CUSTOMER OUTAGES RESULT FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PROBLEMS, NOT TRANSMISSION OR GENERATION EVENTS

* Tracking the Reliability of the U.S. Source: http://my.dteenergy.com/home/powerProblems/electricityOut/index.html

slide23

3.4 Reliability

Reliability Metrics

System Average Interruption Duration Index [SAIDI ]

Σ Customer Interruption Durations

SAIDI =

Total Number of Customers Served

System Average Interruption Frequency Index [SAIFI ]

Σ Number of Customer Interrupted

SAIFI =

Total Number of Customers Served

Customer Average Interruption Duration Index [CAIDI ]

SAIDI

CAIDI =

SAIFI

Momentary Average Interruption Frequency Index [MAIFI ]

Σ Total Number of Customers Momentary Interruptions

MAIFI =

Total Number of Customers Served

slide24

3.5 Reliability

Problems and Issues

  • Bulk Power outages:
    • Reported in near real-time to both NERC and DOE
    • Reported to NERC on Form OE-417, “Electric Emergency Incident and Disturbance Report”.
  • Distribution outages
    • Reported to state regulatory agencies
    • No standard definitions or reporting for major and sustained outages.
    • Power quality and momentary outages not addressed.

100

87

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

26

20

7

10

2

1

0

< 1 min

> 1 min

> 2 min

> 5 min

> 10 min

Figure 6. Utility Practices for Defining Sustained Interruptions *

* Electric Power System: An Assessment of Publicly Available Information Reported to State Public Utility Commissions, October 2008, Eto and La Commare, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

slide25

3.6 Reliability

Outage Costs

Outage Cost Relative to Residential Average**

Example A 1

Example B 2

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.5

8.0

1.0

Residential

Agricultural

0.4

Commercial

3.0

Industrial

8.3

Outage cost normalized to Residential ‘1 hour’.

Service Area*

3.4

Estimated Cost per outage.

[1] Source: Adapted from “Understanding the Cost of Power Interruptions to U.S. Electricity Customers, Hamachi,K and Eto,J, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Sept. 2004, Table 10. Tobit Regression Estimated Cost-per-Outage-per-Customer for the U.S. (US weighted 2002 dollars)

*Represents the weighted average across customer types and aggregate customer usage for a 2-hour winter peak time outage.

[1] Source: Adapted from “Value Based Planning for Electric Utilities”, CEC Report P300-87-001, December 1986.

slide26

3.7 Reliability

  • Defining and Measuring Reliability: Observations
  • There is no consistent definition, no universally applied industry standard for defining and reporting reliability [ outages ].
  • “Major” and “Sustained” events don’t capture power quality (sags and surges) or “momentary” outages.
  • The value inherent in “outage management” is the reduction of the customer outage cost, which is a function of multiple variables including frequency, duration and customer type.
  • Which specific Smart Grid measures contribute to reliability improvements?
  • Clarify Objectives
  • What are the reliability objectives (frequency, duration, cost…)?
  • Is there more than one solution ?
  • What reliability improvements will have the greatest impact?
  • Where in the system will reliability investments have the greatest value?

2/11/2011

27

slide27

3.8 Reliability

References