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Solar Events. Eclipses, Sunspots, Solar Flares & Aurora Borealis. Moon Phases. New Moon, New Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous, Last Quarter, Old Crescent, New Moon (again) New moon not seen just illuminated side facing away from Earth. Solar Eclipse.

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solar events

Solar Events

Eclipses, Sunspots, Solar Flares &Aurora Borealis

moon phases
Moon Phases
  • New Moon, New Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous, Last Quarter, Old Crescent, New Moon (again)
  • New moon not seen just illuminated side facing away from Earth
solar eclipse
Solar Eclipse
  • Only occurs in New Moon phase
  • If Moon’s shadow falls on Earth during this time, we see some portion of sun covered or “eclipsed”
  • Doesn’t happen once a month because moon’s orbit tilted at 5 degrees compared to Earth’s orbit around sun
  • At least twice a year, the geometry lines up and we get a solar eclipse

Umbra and Penumbra

Umbra – Moon’s dark inner shadow, when strikes Earth we see total solar eclipse

Penumbra – Moon’s faint outer shadow, when strikes Earth we see a partial solar eclipse

Which one is safe to look at directly? Why?

lunar eclipse
Lunar Eclipse
  • Only occurs in Full Moon phase
  • Caused by the Moon traveling through some portion of the Earth’s shadow (two cones nested inside one another)
  • Penumbral /Outer Shadow is where Earth blocks some but not all of the sun’s rays from reaching the moon
  • Umbral/Inner Shadow is where Earth blocks all of the sun’s rays from reaching the moon

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse – Moon passes through Earth’s penumbral shadow, subtle and hard to observe

Partial Lunar Eclipse – portion of Moon passes through Earth’s umbral shadow, easy to see

Total Lunar Eclipse – entire Moon passes through Earth’s umbral shadow, Moon turns brilliant red through entire phases

why a red moon
Why a Red Moon?
  • While Moon completely within Earth’s shadow some indirect light still reaches the moon and illuminates it
  • Happens because Earth’s atmosphere bends/refracts the light
  • Earth’s atmosphere filters out the blue coloured light
  • Remaining light is deep orange/red
  • Dark areas on the surface of Sun (aka photosphere)
  • Areas have much lower temperature than surrounding area (drop as much as 2000C)
  • Can last for several hours or up to several months
  • Grouped in pairs with extremely intense magnetic fields (1000x stronger than Earth’s)
  • One region is negative (south) and other is positive (north)
solar flares
Solar Flares
  • Enormous explosions on surface of Sun that occur near sunspots
  • Caused by the release of built up magnetic energy in solar atmosphere
  • In minutes, heat material to millions of degrees celcius
  • Releases as much energy as a billion megatons of dynamite (10 million x greater than a volcanic eruption)
  • Types of energy release: radio waves, xrays, gamma rays, protons and electrons
  • Categorized by brightness
effects on earth
Effects on Earth
  • Usually has no effect on Earth because radiation filtered out by thick atmosphere
  • Has potential to zap satellites which could disrupt telecommunications
  • May have ability to make astronauts sick (radiation sickness) if exposed
aurora borealis
Aurora Borealis
  • Caused by the collision of electrically charged particles from the Sun with gas particles in the Earth’s atmosphere
  • Colour produced dependent on types of particles that collide
  • Most common is yellowish-green produced by low altitude oxygen particles
  • Rare red colour produced by high altitude oxygen particles
  • Nitrogen particles produce blue or reddish-purple
  • Find an article on 2012
  • Read and summarize
  • Bring both the article and your summary tomorrow