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Review for MEGA-MEGA READING QUIZ!!! AP EUROPEAN HISTORY
JUST KIDDING!!! AT LEAST FOR TODAY…
Just kidding ABOUT JUST KIDDING! MWWAHAHAHA!!!
Ch . 15 Reading Quiz • Who were the “Three Henrys”? • What happened to each of the Three Henrys? • Who enacted the Edict of Nantes? • What did the Edict of Nantes do? • Why did Philip have a problem with Elizabeth I?
THE SPANISH ARMADA AP EUROPEAN HISTORY
PRELUDE • Mary Tudor, Queen of England had been married to Philip II – together they hoped to restore England to Catholicism • However, Mary died in 1558, leaving the English throne to her half-sister Elizabeth
PRELUDE • Philip promptly proposed marriage to Elizabeth, who rejected the proposal • Elizabeth made Philip even more angry by assisting Dutch rebels • Philip withheld any negative actions against her however…
Prelude • Elizabeth had a cousin, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots • Mary was a Catholic, and successor to the English throne • Philip knew this and wished to see Mary as Queen • Elizabeth knew this all too well…
Prelude • Mary, implicated in a murder plot in Scotland, was forced to abdicate her throne to her baby son James • Mary sought the protection of Elizabeth • Mary wanted Elizabeth’s help in restoring her to power • Elizabeth had no such inclinations…
Prelude • When Elizabeth did not help her, Mary took action • Mary conspired for years with other Catholics to recover England for Catholicism • Mary even went so far as to offer her succession rights to Philip, this ended Elizabeth’s patience
Prelude • Elizabeth could not wait any longer, Mary had become too great a threat • Mary was executed, Feb 18, 1587 • This infuriated Philip, as well as Pope Sixtus V, who offered Philip one million gold ducats when Spanish troops set foot in England
The armada • The Catholic Crusade against Elizabeth took its form in the shape of Philip’s “invincible” Spanish Armada • In May 1588, 130 Spanish ships sailed from Lisbon • This was the same Spanish fleet which had defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, restoring control of the Mediterranean to Europe
The armada • The Spanish Armada was well-equipped • 130 vessels weighing 58,000 tons with 2,400 guns • However, they were met by English ships numbering close to 200 which were faster and more maneuverable
The battle • English ships met the Armada in the Channel, using fire ships to scatter the Armada formations • From there the English took down the Armada’s ships one by one • Then came “the Protestant wind”
The battle • The English fire ships drove the Armada to the North Sea where a powerful gale forced the Armada northward • The Armada began to break up in the uncharted waters around the tip of Scotland and limped home • The English had defeated the great Armada
The aftermath • By the time the Spanish fleet made it home, half of its ships were lost and thousands of sailors had died • It was a huge psychological victory for England and a disaster for Spain and the Catholics, Spain experienced a sense of defeatism • The war between England and Spain dragged on, but the power was shifting in England’s favor
Next… THE THIRTY YEAR’S WAR
assignment • READ AND SUMMARIZE “CHANGING ATTITUDES” PP. 513-519.