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Acids/Bases. Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist, proposed the following definition: Acids form hydronium ions in aqueous solutions, while bases form hydroxide ions. Acids give off H + Bases give off OH -. Properties of acids. Give foods a tart or sour taste Electrolytes

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acids bases
Acids/Bases
  • Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist, proposed the following definition:
  • Acids form hydronium ions in aqueous solutions, while bases form hydroxide ions.
  • Acids give off H+
  • Bases give off OH-
properties of acids
Properties of acids
  • Give foods a tart or sour taste
  • Electrolytes
  • React with hydroxide ions to form water and a salt
    • HCl + NaOH --> NaCl + H2O
properties of bases
Properties of bases
  • React with acids to form water and salt
  • Have a bitter taste
  • Have a slippery feel
  • Electrolytes
  • Milk of Magnesia (Magnesium Hydroxide) is a base used to treat excess stomach acid problems.
hydrogen ions from water this is the basis to start understanding ph
Hydrogen Ions from WaterThis is the basis to start understanding pH
  • Water is considered neutral
  • Collision between water molecules can cause a hydrogen ion to transfer from one molecule to another.

H2O H2O H3O+ OH-

hydronium ion hydroxide ion

self ionization of water
Self-Ionization of Water

Water self ionizes to the concentration of 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L.

When the concentration of each ion equals 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L

the solution is said to be neutral

Therefore, since water is considered neutral the

concentrations of the ions can be calculated through the

Ion product constant.

the ion product constant k w
The Ion-Product ConstantKw
  • Notation
    • [H+] - concentration of hydrogen ions
      • Or hydronium ions
    • [OH-] - concentration of hydroxide ions
  • When [H+] and [OH-] are multiplied we get the ion-product constant.
  • Kw = [H+] x [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 (mol/L)2 or M2
  • This is an inverse relationship.
    • One goes up, the other goes down.
the ion product constant k w example problem
The Ion-Product ConstantKw example problem
  • If [H+] = 1.0 x 10-5 mol/L, is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? What is the [OH-] of this solution?
  • Answer
    • Acidic - the [H+] is greater than 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L
    • 1.0 x 10-5 mol/L x [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 M2
    • [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-9 mol/L
the ion product constant k w example problem1
The Ion-Product ConstantKw example problem
  • If [OH-] = 2.8 x 10-8 mol/L, is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? What is the [H+] of this solution?
  • Answer
    • acidic - the [OH-] is less than 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L
    • [H+] x 2.8 x 10-8 mol/L = 1.0 x 10-14 M2
    • [H+] = 3.5 x 10-7 mol/L