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Ulysses S. Grant. American Warrior, American President, American Hero. At the end of the Civil War, who was the most popular American ? . A) Abraham Lincoln B) William Tecumseh Sherman C) Ulysses S. Grant D) Charles Sumner . Ulysses S. Grant!. Background Information .

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Ulysses s grant

Ulysses S. Grant

American Warrior, American President,

American Hero

At the end of the civil war who was the most popular american
At the end of the Civil War, who was the most popular American ?

  • A) Abraham Lincoln

  • B) William Tecumseh Sherman

  • C) Ulysses S. Grant

  • D) Charles Sumner

Background information
Background Information

  • Born in Ohio; April 27, 1822

  • Fought in the Mexican-American War

  • Commander of all U.S. Armies in the Civil War

  • 18th President of the United States: 1869-1877

  • President during Reconstruction and a time of rapid industrialization

  • Died: July 23, 1885

Fun facts
Fun Facts

  • Ulysses S. Grant’s original name was Hiram Ulysses Grant (changed upon entering West Point)

  • Only one of two Presidents to attend West Point

  • Grant had a persistent drinking problem

  • Grant received the title of Commander of all U.S. Armies during the Civil War (first since George Washington)

  • Youngest President to assume office until Theodore Roosevelt (he was 46 years old)

  • As President, Grant was pulled over for a speeding violation on 16th Street in Washington D.C. (Grant paid the fine and walked home to the White House).

Election of 1868
Election of 1868

  • The election was essentially a referendum on Reconstruction

  • Democrats ran a campaign to fight back against Reconstruction

  • Grant ran as a Republican on a campaign of reconciliation

  • Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour, Governor of NY

  • Electoral Vote: 214-80

  • Popular Vote: 52.7%-47.3%

Grant and reconstruction
Grant and Reconstruction

  • Grant wanted to preserve the rights the Civil War had won for African-Americans

  • He wanted to bring about the end of Reconstruction in a way that would reconcile the country and preserve the Union’s victories

  • Restore order in the South

Annexing santo domingo
Annexing Santo Domingo

  • Grant wanted to annex the modern day Dominican Republic

  • Wanted it to become a state and safe haven for African-Americans

  • Grant believed that it would…

    • allow blacks to escape from discrimination

    • convince whites to treat blacks better, so they could keep their labor

    • convince more Latin American countries to end slavery

  • Grant also believed it would help the economy

  • Defeated by Charles Sumner of MA in 1870

Ku klux klan confederate terrorists
Ku Klux Klan—Confederate Terrorists

  • White Supremacist Secret Society

  • Led by a former confederate general named Nathaniel Bedford Forest

  • “Midnight Rides”—men dressed in white robes would attack black communities (and carpetbaggers)

  • Not only made up by “rednecks” but diverse demographics

    • Police officers

    • Firemen

    • Other respected men in society

Grant vs the klan
Grant vs. the Klan

  • Enforcement Acts (or Ku Klux Klan Acts)

    • Passed 1870 and 1871

    • Prohibited states from discriminating voters based on race

    • Gave the federal gov’t the power to prosecute violators

      • First time the federal gov’t could prosecute criminals under federal law

    • Authorized Grant to use the military to protect civil rights and suspend the right of habeas corpus

    • Grant used the acts against nine counties in South Carolina in October 1871

  • By 1872, Grant had succeeded in ending the Klan

Grant vs louisiana
Grant vs. Louisiana

  • Jan. 1875, Democrats stormed the state assembly to install five white legislators in disputed seats

  • Grant sent Phil Sheridan with troops to New Orleans to forcibly remove the legislators and support the Republican state gov’t

  • Both the South and North responded in outrage. Saw it as an overreach of the federal gov’t

  • In the future, Grant would back down from using troops

  • Reconstruction was ending

Grant and native americans
Grant and Native Americans

  • "When I said ‘Let us have peace,’ I meant it. I want peace on the Plains as everywhere else."

  • Grant disagreed with former colleague William Tecumseh Sherman, who wanted a policy of extermination

  • He believed Native Americans were the original occupants and wanted them to be treated with respect

  • Grant supported the reservation system and wanted to give Native Americans citizen-status and provide them education

  • Unfortunately, Grant’s dreams were dashed by Western expansionists

Election of 1872
Election of 1872

  • Liberal Republicans split from the party in opposition to “Grantism”

  • Democrats joined them to nominate Horace Greeley from the New York Tribune

  • Grant won in one of the biggest landslides in American history

  • Electoral Vote: 286-66

  • Popular Vote: 56%-44%

Scandals of the grant administration
Scandals of the Grant Administration

  • Many scandals major and minor came to light during the campaign of 1872

  • Crédit Mobilier

    • French company that used its power to seize fraudulent gov. contracts

    • Sold stock to high-profile Republicans to prevent an investigation

    • 1872—Congress did investigate

    • Haunts the Rep. Party for decades

  • “Whiskey Ring”

    • officials in the Treasury Department were cheating the gov. out of tax revenue

  • William W. Belknap, Secretary of War

    • accepted kickbacks to retain an Indian-post trader

  • “Grantism” came to represent corruption

The panic of 1873
The Panic of 1873

  • Four-year depression

  • Caused by Jay Cooke and Company’s overinvestment in postwar railroad building

  • Derailed Reconstruction by moving focus toward the economy

  • Opened up the “Greenback” or Currency Question, which became a major issue in the last quarter of the 1800s

  • Specie Resumption Act of 1879—replaced greenbacks with currency pegged to gold, which helped creditors but hurt debtors

Alabama claims
Alabama Claims

  • Alabama Claims—claim that England had violated neutrality laws by allowing ships to be built for the Confederacy in England and that they needed to pay for it

  • Solved by Hamilton Fish—U.S. Secretary of State under Grant

  • Treaty of Washington of 1871

    • Britain expressed regret for what had happened

    • Resolved many disputes over international law

Sources used
Sources Used

  • American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

  • American Experience: Ulysses S. Grant

  • American Experience: Reconstruction—The Second Civil War

  • C-SPAN—Presidential Rankings

  • Images:

    • Wikimedia

    • PBS