Smart Grid (Enterprise) Architecture 101 2012/Dec/04 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Smart Grid (Enterprise) Architecture 101 2012/Dec/04

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  1. Smart Grid(Enterprise) Architecture 1012012/Dec/04

  2. Agenda • Architecture Overview • SGAC Conceptual Architecture • Semantics / Vocabulary • Maturity Models • Summary/Resources

  3. Architecture as usually practiced ARCHITECTURE OR BUY A VENDOR’S PACKAGE (Apologies to Mr Adams and my fellow architects) There is never enough time (or money) to do it right the first time There is always enough time and money to fix it over and over again -Anonymous

  4. Siloed Implementation Approach ESB Core Utility Automation Serv Prov EMS/ DMS CIS Mobile Field Mgt SubSta Auto Field Auto Res DR PEV DER ESB AMI SCADA GIS State Estimate Core Utility Automation WASA AMI Market EMS/ DMS CIS Mobile Field Mgt SCADA DR OMS GIS State Estimate

  5. What is Architecture? LEFT Brain Right Brain BOTH SIDES IEC 42010-2007: The formal organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationship to each other and the environment and the principles governing it’s design and evolution • Architectural process is a phased approach. It documents with every increasing levels of granularity and specificity, the requirements, relationships, services and sequence necessary to realize those goals • Architectural art is intuition tempered by experience; it usually takes practice to master. Artistry is needed to define the appropriate levels of component ontological abstraction for each phase • Enterprise Architecture is the process of translating business vision and strategy into effective organizational change.

  6. Why We Need Architecture Yes, it’s a Kitchen/ Bathroom Logical – but … ? First in first out/ Priority of the day OR Architectural Process Output Input

  7. Different types of Architecture Conceptual – General landscape Source: NIST SGIP Network Source: SIU Physical – systems/solution inventory Source: Amsbary - client utility Reference – Component (functions) make up Source: NIST SGIP and IEC TC57 Infrastructure – exchanges/workflow Source: Amsbary - client Application/Solution – Specifications Source: Amsbary - client Logical –functions relationship Source: Multispeak and Hydro One

  8. Architecture uses Frameworks • Including TOGAF*, DoDAF, MoDAF, FEA, Zachman, &c • They have their own Methodology, Techniques and Tools • Incorporate Lifecycle maps for Project Management (PMO) and Systems Engineering lifecycles (ITIL) *The Open Group Architecture Framework

  9. Architecture Phases Rather then trying to “eat an elephant all at once”, architecture identifies goals and decomposes them into services that ultimately relate to the physical entities • This breaks-down into: • Preliminary, What do you have & what are your organization’s drivers • Vision, what goals you trying to achieve • Requirements, what needs do the goals impose • Business Services, what abstracted services are needed to support a requirement • Information (or Automation) Services, what sort of applications and information models are needed to support the abstracted service • Technical Service, what is actually performing the service Don’t worry we’ll cover phases E H later

  10. Architecture Service OrientationOpen Group Definition • Service orientation is a way of thinking in terms of services and service-based development and the outcomes of services • A service:Is a logical representation of a repeatable business activity that has a specified outcome (e.g., provide weather data, locate fault, dispatch DER) • Is self-contained • May be composed of other services • Is a “black box” to consumers of the service • An architectural style is the combination of distinctive features in which architecture is performed or expressed. interfaces Simply put: Services are “black boxes”, messages come into them, they work their magic, and resulting message are sent out Output Input Process/ Service Actor Actor (role an actor assumes)

  11. Simple Building Architecture Example Magic in this case is the ability to infer the options interfaces Input Output Process/ Service Vision Comfort Green Budget Business Services Hot Water Source Treatment Rebates Rate Incentive Require- ments Water Heat/Air Light Outside environ Sanitary Energy Eff Material Reuse Op Costs Initial Cost Timeframe Application Services Solar Gas Electric Technical Services Panels Batteries Inverter &c

  12. Why we need sequence Sequence ensures the right thing is done in the right order & illuminates alternatives It’s not as easy as it sounds Impact of no sequence Build High Rise Complex Dig drainage canal to prevent flooding

  13. Sequence changes based on the Situation Simple restaurant* example • Business • Requirement • Sit-down • Restaurant • Fast Food • Chain • Buffet Business Service Order Eat Pay Order Pay Eat Pay Order Eat * Courtesy of Doug Houseman

  14. Smart Grid Architecture Produces • Strategic Plans • Technical Road Maps • Use Cases • Reference Models • Recommended standards • Migration Plans • Change Management • Security and Governance In short what is required to move from today’s state to the stakeholder’s goal

  15. Use Cases • Clarifies how a Smart Grid requirement is envisioned to work and provides the overarching: • Functional requirements • Non-Functional requirements • Interfaces • Sequence • Actors (roles) • They are used and refined throughout the architectural process

  16. TOGAF Iteration & Architecture layers TOGAF cycle and corresponding Artifact level of detail • Contextual/Vision • What are the Goals • What is the current state • Conceptual • What it shall accomplish • What services are required • Logical • How it shall be accomplished • How is the architecture structured • Physical • What resources shall be required Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Conceptual Logical Physical Conceptual Logical Physical

  17. Architecture roadmap Business Automation Technologies Input from strategy & context Business Architecture Information Architecture Automation Architecture Technical Architecture Vision/ Contextual Why? What are the info processing requirements What type of applications are required What is the business What technical IT services are required Conceptual What? Refinement Refinement How is the business structured How are these systems structured How are the “boxes” structured How is information structured Logical How? What manual & automated processes need to be linked What packages & bespoke software What Hardware, software & network component Physical With what? Which parts of the business will change

  18. The Rest of the Story • Yikes …. Remember the other half of the cycle? • That’s where those areas are handled • This ensures the architecture stays viable instead of stale • Think of this as your “honey-do” list Ok, now we understand what it takes to design a Smart Grid. Now we have to implement it, migrate legacy procedures/systems, operate it, handle changes and ensure governance

  19. SGiP Smart Grid Goal:To support Business Specific Solutions • Community-Serving Architecture • Deliverables • Foundational Smart Grid services to accelerate business specific implementations • Concepts • Requirements • Business and Automation Services • Domain Interactions • Use-Cases • Semantics/Vocabulary, Terminology Conceptual Architecture • Business-Focused Solution Architecture • Business specific requirements • Business specific processes • Business specific logical model design • Physical interface schema design and Standard requirements • Solution specifications and development • Project validation, testing & migration • Deployment & Architecture Governance Logical & Physical Architecture

  20. EU & SGAC Architecture Alignment SGAC Initially kept at Conceptual level to avoid being prescriptive Organizationally focused Bulk Generation and DER merged EU M490 RAWG Logical architecture leveraging SGAC Conceptual & GWAC IMM Functionally focused DER -No interfaces to Transmission or Customer

  21. Methodology Alignment Activities SGAC Conceptual Architecture Zones Functional` and physical Business goals & requirements Market: Org and syst Use Cases, Business Services/Actors Enterprise: “back-office” (everything that’s not Power ops and Market) Interactions (messages), Automation Services Semantics-CDMs Operation: Grid Control Services Flow Station: physical substation Semantics Field: protection and monitoring equipment Syntax & Communications Standards Hierarchy GWAC Stack Based Process: Primary power delivery equipment EU’s Smart Grid Architectural Methodology maps to SGAC Conceptual Architecture & GWAC IMM Stack

  22. SGAC - Architecture roadmap NIST Conceptual Architecture Business Automation Technologies Input from strategy & context Business Architecture Information Architecture Automation Architecture Technical Architecture Conceptual What? Vision/ Contextual Why? What are the info processing requirements What type of applications are required What is the business What technical ICT services are required Refinement Refinement How is the business structured How are these systems structured How are the “boxes” structured How is information structured Logical How? Physical With what? What manual & automated processes need to be linked What Hardware, software & network component Which parts of the business will change What packages & bespoke software SGiP Architecture Development

  23. SGAC* Architecture Efforts *SGAC - Smart Grid Architecture Committee • Unification/alignment with other Smart Grid Efforts (currently: EU Smart-Grid Coordination-Group and IEC TC-57 WG-19) • Recognizes many strategic initiatives fail because new technologies are viewed in isolation • Addresses a holistic view of the power system and business domains • Provides context allowing business stakeholders to prioritize and justify often conflicting technology decisions based on a robust conceptual model • Facilitates common vocabulary and re-use of system level constructs across all Smart Grid business domains • Rich knowledge base of national-level goal decomposition, business requirements, services and actionable vocabulary

  24. Need for a Semantic Vocabulary • Natural Language is Ambiguous • One Reality, Multiple Views of It • Meaning is Relative to a Perception • Perception is Contextualization • Ambiguity can be eliminated with Contextualization • Contextualization can be defined through Relations

  25. Vocabulary and Semantics Information Challenges • Ambiguous Semantics • Inter-domain communications • Multiple Technologies • Consistency • Partially Known Value-Chain • Cross Business-Unit Operational implications • Low Data Quality • Decisions/Trust-Risk • Poor Data Specification • Expectations Success Factors • Well defined vocabulary and semantics • Eliminate technology dependencies/disparities • Precise Relations • Clear Expectations

  26. Semantic ModelingLanguage Need for actionable vocabulary beyond model languages such as Universal Modeling Language (UML) • Open Source managed by W3C a non-propriety file format • Ontology Web Language (OWL) is more expressive than UML Actionable • Simple Structure • Subject, Verb, Object (triple) which is stored in a Resource Description Framework (RDF) for access • Triplets can be transparently merged across data sources • Provides formal verification across diverse vocabularies • If it’s Web addressable, its available for use • Analysis/query (SPARQL)

  27. RDF Example Three triplets as URI Steve Ray Steve URI URI http://www.enernex.com/employees/stephan-amsbary/#!/ Steph EnerNex

  28. Web Semantic Mash-up Example DoE Smart Grid Clearinghouse http://www.sgiclearinghouse.org/?q=node/13 • With no programming – just a RFS definition • Each project has dissimilar • Location information • Labels • Project details • Google recognizes as such • Maps each project location • Labels each by it’s type (AMI, CS, DS, &c.) • Links to project details

  29. Maturity Models Maturity Models are strategic frameworks to identify opportunities for improvement They create a roadmap identifying activities, best practices and investments leading to the desired state Provides maturity characteristics expected for each stage of maturity Provide an assessment of the current state and help bridge the gaps to the future state Observable indicators of progress – measurable outcomes that improve with each stage of maturity

  30. SEI* Smart Grid Maturity Model * SEI - Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute

  31. SEI Smart Grid Maturity Model

  32. GWAC* Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model (IMM) Work In Progress GWAC Context-setting Framework SEI Smart Grid Maturity Model NEHTA Interoperability Maturity Modelhttp://www.nehta.gov.au/connecting-australia/ehealth-interoperability *GWAC – DoE GridWise Architecture Council

  33. The GWAC IMM Stack • 1 Framework (GWAC Stack) • 8 interoperability categories consolidated into 3 layers • 10 Cross -Cutting issues – 3 layers • 9 Interoperability Areas • Combining the interoperability and cross cutting categories provides a two dimensional matrix that helps simplify the conceptual landscape Slide courtesy of Mark Knight

  34. Level 5 IMM Maturity Example CROSS CUTTING ISSUES LEVEL OF MATURITY ORGANIZATIONAL INFORMATIONAL INTEROPERABILITY CATEGORIES TECHNICAL OPERATION CONFIGURATION& EVOLUTION SECURITY & SAFETY

  35. GWAC SG IMM Evaluation Matrix Interoperability Areas Maturity level Metrics (questions)

  36. Smart Grid Architecture Summary • Southern California Edison • Consumers Electric • Duke Energy • Florida Power and Light • National Grid • Pacific Gas & Electric • Most Smart Grid software vendors • Affects the entire organization, not just computer techies • A process that minimizes risk and gives insight into how the business operates today and what changes are needed to achieve the business’ grid modernization objectives • A means to: • Gain operational efficiencies • Maximize assets and personnel • Bring order to IT delivery - aligning Business Services with the underlying automation Services-Oriented (SOA) foundation • SGAC efforts are performing the heavy lifting to define Smart Grid’s foundation • Several Utilities are using EA (and TOGAF) Notable examples:

  37. Want to know more • SGAC Conceptual Architecture Session • Monday at 2:30 – 4:00PM • Current status of SGAC activities • Wednesday at 3:30-5:00PM • Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity (SG-IMM) • Wednesday at 3:30-15:00AM • Demand/Response Architecture • Thursday at 8:00-10:00AM • SG-IMM Work Shop • Thursday at 1:00-2:30P

  38. References • National Use-case repository: • http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/IKBUseCases • SGIP SGAC: • http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/SmartGridArchitectureCommittee • EU Commission Mandate M.490 Reference Architecture • http://ps.kan.bg/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/ClC13-Sec2012-004_SGCG-RAWG-Reference-Architecture-TR-v0-5.pdf • EPRI IntelliGrid • http://intelligrid.epri.com/ • GridWise AC: • www.gridwiseac.org • UCA International (OpenSG): • http://osgug.ucaiug.org • Software Engineering Institute Smart Grid Maturity Model • http://www.sei.cmu.edu/smartgrid/ • The Open Group (TOGAF): • http://www.opengroup.org/togaf/

  39. Questions ? How does this work? STEPHAN AMSBARY Director, Utility Enterprise Architecture Stephan@EnerNex.com Phone: +1.828.559.1110 FAX: 865.218.8999 1993 Grants Mountain Rd, Marion, NC, 28752-9513 Electric Research, Engineering, and Consulting