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Particles and the Universe. Professor Peter Kalmus. Physics Department. 170,000 light years. 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. Supernova 1987A. Neutrino numbers Emitted ~ 10 58 Hit Earth ~ 10 29 Hit tank ~ 10 17 Interact ~ 10.

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slide1

Particles and the Universe

Professor Peter Kalmus

Physics Department

slide2

170,000

light years

10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Supernova 1987A

Neutrino numbers

Emitted ~ 1058

Hit Earth ~ 1029

Hit tank ~ 1017

Interact ~ 10

Energy release ~ 1046 J

SN

1987A

Earth

SN

~ 1046 J

slide3

8 arc min

Large Magellanic Cloud

Sanduleak - 69o 202

slide6

LHC

History of the

Universe

T/K

Energy

Tevatron

LEP

16

10

1 TeV

Particle

Era

Era of

10

1 GeV

13

Astronomy

Nuclear

Primordial

Era

Soup

10

1 MeV

10

Atomic

Era

10

1 keV

7

10

1 eV

4

Hot as Hell

445oC = Boiling point of Brimstone

Sun forms

10

1 meV

Time

m

ps ns

s ms s

1 day

1 year

Today

Time since

Big Bang / s

10-12

10-6

100

1013

1018

slide7

Dark matter

Dark energy

Primordial Soup

CERN style

100 GeV / particle

Ingredients

56% quarks

16% gluons

9% charged leptons

9% W & Z particles

5% neutrinos

2% photons

2% gravitons

1% Higgs bosons

Recipe by Rocky Kolb

Hot 3 x 1015K

Condensed

Missing

ingredients

slide8

Rotation in spiral galaxies

Stars move too fast

(measured by Doppler shift)

96 % of universe is undetected

~4% Baryonic; ~24% “Dark Matter”

~72% “Dark Energy”

Inverse square law

Sun

v

Mo

a

Kepler, Newton

T2 = 4 p2 a3 /G Mo

v2 = G Mo/a (circular orbit)

slide9

velocity

Distance from centre

Galaxy rotation curve

Measured velocities from Doppler shifts

Expect from detected stars etc.

Hence there is more gravitationally attractive material than has been detected  Dark matter

slide10

Slowest v

2 v

3 v

Fastest 4 v

Explosion in empty space (forget about gravity)

Dark energy

After some time the fastest particles will be furthest away

slide11

Plot distance against

  • recession velocity for many galaxies
  • Get straight line
  • Big Bang

The Universe

is like this !

Distance (Magnitude)

furthest galaxy

highest recession velocity

Hubble Diagram

nearest galaxy

Recession velocity (Doppler Redshift z)

slide12

But cannot ignore gravity which slows down the flow

Hubble Diagram

Distance (Magnitude)

Expect this line to curve downwards for very distant galaxies.

Expansion would decelerate

Recession velocity (Doppler Redshift z)

slide13

Hubble Diagram

(simplified)

Recent results show that expansion is accelerating !

Distance (Magnitude)

Cosmic repulsion !

“Dark energy”

Recession velocity (Doppler Redshift z)

slide14

Structure of the Atom

Proton +

Neutron

strong

force

Early 20th Century electron, nucleus

1930s

electric force

electromagnetism

Nucleus

Atom

bunch of

grapes

~ 10-10m

~ 10-15m

town

slide15

Neutrinos

Feel weak force

“predicted”  later discovered

100,000,000,000,000 per second pass

through each person from the Sun

Equal and opposite properties

“predicted”  later discovered

Annihilate with normal particles

Now used in PET scans

Antiparticles

Many new particles created

in high energy collisions

1950s, 1960s

Convert energy to mass. Einstein E = mc2

> 200 new “elementary” (?) particles

slide16

Leptons

(do not feel strong force)

electron e- -1

e-neutrino ne 0

Quarks

(feel strong force)

up u +2/3

down d -1/3

Today’s building blocks

proton = u u d

+2/3 +2/3 -1/3 = +1

neutron = u d d

+2/3 -1/3 -1/3 = 0

4 particles very simple

multiply by 3 (generations)

multiply by 2 (antiparticles)

First generation

slide17

Today’s building blocks

Also

antileptons

antiquarks

Leptons

(do not feel strong force)

electron e- -1

e-neutrino ne 0

Quarks

(feel strong force)

up u +2/3

down d -1/3

6 leptons

6 antileptons

6 quarks

6 antiquarks

baryons q q q

antibary. q q q

mesons qq

muon m- -1

m-neutrino nm 0

charm c +2/3

strange s -1/3

tau t- -1

t-neutrino nt 0

top t +2/3

bottom b -1/3

Recent news:

pentaquarks

slide18

Antimatter

Annihilation of

Antigalaxy ?

Telescopes X

Cosmic rays ?

AMS (Space station)

Alfven hypothesis

Earth, Moon, X

Solar system X

Antistars in our Galaxy ?

Other (anti-) galaxies ?

Anti-hydrogen : made in lab

Bulk antimatter ? Where ?

Difficult to detect

Signal ?

e+ + e - g + g

0.511 MeV g-ray “line”

g

g

g

Radiation pressure

slide19

Insect

1 lens

2 lenses

3 lenses

: Magnifying glass

: Microscope

: No improvement

Resolution limited by wavelength of light = l

Visible light wavelength l ~ 5 x 10-7 m

This is 5,000 times size of atom

500 million times size of nucleus

To “probe” elementary particles need wavelengths l

lower by factor more than a billion !

Constituents

How can we find internal structure?

slide20

Planck

constant

h

p

l =

wavelength

momentum

Quantum physics to the rescue

Particles have

wave properties

“See” small objects

 small wavelength

 high momentum

 high energy

 large accelerator

Non-relativistic

p = m v

mass x velocity

Relativistic

p = gm v

g = 1/ (1 - v2/c2)1/2

To observe the smallest objects we need the largest machines !

slide21

Accelerator

~

Extract

beam

RF cavities

electric kick

Bending

electro-

magnet

Focusing

electro-

magnet

Vacuum

ring

Injector

slide23

Forces

Electro-

magnetic

atoms

molecules

optics

electronics

telecom.

Weak

beta

decay

solar

fusion

Strong

nuclei

particles

Gravity

falling

objects

planet

orbits

stars

galaxies

short

range

gluon

inverse

square law

photon

short

range

W±, Z0

inverse

square law

graviton

slide24

Forces by exchange

Analogy only

Useful mental picture ?

slide26

of the fundamental

forces of nature

Unification

Faraday, Maxwell

Newton

Electricity

Magnetism

Apples

Planets

Electro-

magnetic

Gravity

slide27

of the fundamental

forces of nature

Unification

Faraday, Maxwell

Newton

Electricity

Magnetism

Apples

Planets

Electro-

magnetic

Gravity

Weak

Strong

Salam, Weinberg, Glashow

Electroweak

unified force

g, W +, W -, Z 0

0 80 80 90 GeV

Do the W and Z particles really exist ?

slide28

Collider

Inject

anti-

protons

~

RF cavities

electric kick

Bending

electro-

magnet

Carlo Rubbia

Antiprotons

Collide 2

beams

Inside

vacuum

Focusing

electro-

magnet

Simon van der Meer

Stochastic cooling

Inject

protons

slide31

Carriers of Weak Force

Found at CERN

The W boson the hypo

The Discovery of the W Boson

The observation of the W intermediate vector boson, the particle that

carries the weak nuclear force, is the most outstanding achievement

of the CERN laboratory in Geneva and one of the most important

advances in physics of this century. It is the successful conclusion of

carries the weak force which

controls the production of

energy in the Sun and some

The Role of UK Scientists

Twenty-five British scientists played an important part in

the remarkable discovery of the W boson. They were led

by Professor J D Dowell of Birmingham University,

Professor P I P Kalmus of Queen Mary College and Dr A

Astbury of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The W boson

slide32

It is very encouraging that so many British scientists were in the team that discovered the “W boson”, and I would like to congratulate you and your colleagues from Queen Mary College on your success. I am sure that British physicists will be among the first to unify all the four basic forces

From

THE PRIME MINISTER

10 Downing Street

To

Professor P. I. P. Kalmus

slide33

Peter Kalmus

Alan Honma

Eric Eisenhandler

Richard Keeler

Reg Gibson

Giordi Salvi

Graham Thompson

Themis Bowcock

W and Z particles discovered

UA1 Collaboration at CERN

Included following members of Queen Mary

Results confirmed by another CERN

collaboration,

and few years later at Fermilab USA

Electroweak unification confirmed

Nature’s fundamental forces

reduced from 4 to 3

Nobel Prizes

slide34

THE END

p.i.p.kalmus@qmul.ac.uk

http://www.ph.qmul.ac.uk