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Mediums. Not Smalls or Larges Not XS or XL But there is an XXL for Juan Reynoso. *No Blake. The XS and XL are not a representation of Joaquin and Anna . Oil painting. Oil paintings utilize glazing, which is painting in layers on transparent oil.

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Not Smalls or Larges

Not XS or XL

But there is an XXL for Juan Reynoso.

*No Blake. The XS and XL are not a representation of Joaquin and Anna 

oil painting
Oil painting
  • Oil paintings utilize glazing, which is painting in layers on transparent oil.
  • Applying it in thin layers allows it to be translucent because oil paint comes in different levels of opacity, so you can either glaze it (like Van Eyck) or impasto it on (like Van Gogh).
  • The tiny brushstrokes are well blended and barely visible. This medium allows errors to be corrected while it is still wet because it is much slower to dry. The glazing is relatively transparent and allows for a glowing effect.

The Calling of Saint Matthew


Oil on canvas,

322 x 340 cm

Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome

Vincent Van Gogh
  • Starry Night
  • 1889
  • Oil on Canvas
oil on wood panel
Oil on Wood Panel
  • This medium was used from large altarpiece to small portraits.
  • It was used by 15th century Europe painters ,especially Flemish painters.
  • Process of making an oil on wood panel painting: First the wood was sanded to make it smooth, then it was coated with a solution of chalk. Lastly fine linen was glued over the whole surface, finally the artist would paint with oil.
  • Oil on wood panel paintings took longer to dry than tempera and errors could be corrected while it was still wet.
  • The result of oil on wood is a smooth surface that betrayed brush strokes.
  • Using oil on wood panel allows to portray translucence.
  • -Translucence in an art piece could be made by applying oil in very thin layers.
  • The artist is only limited by the amount of space on the panel.

MASTER of Flémalle; Robert Campin

Mérode Altarpiecec. 1427Oil on wood, 64 x 63 cm (central), 65 x 27 cm (each wing)Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


RAFFAELLO SanzioMadonna and Child (The Tempi Madonna)1508Oil on wood, 75 x 51 cmAlte Pinakothek, Munich


GRÜNEWALD, MatthiasNativity (detail)c. 1515Oil on woodMusée d'Unterlinden, Colmar

  • Tempera paints consist of colored pigments mixed with water
  • It was mostly used in Italian renaissance paintings, and in medieval paintings
  • The artist is limited by time due to the quick drying of the medium
ink on paper
Ink on Paper
  • Ink is pressed onto a piece of paper ever so carefully and skillfully to create a work of art.
  • There are virtually no limitations through the use of this art technique (ink on paper). The presence of the artist’s hand is made quite evident and visible with an ever so gentle method of creation and extraordinary uniqueness that varies from each work.
ink on silk
Ink on silk
  • Silk was very expensive so only royalty would commission works on silk.
  • Silk comes from silk worms which were only found in China at the time.
  • Not having a consistent amount of silk limited the number of silk paintings.

Ladies Preparing newly woven silk

Zhang Xuan

Northern song Dynasty

  • The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood, and canvas.
  • Watercolor painting is extremely old, dating to cave paintings, and has been used for manuscript illumination since Egyptian times and in the European Middle Ages It first became popular as an art medium during the Renaissance.
  • Watercolors are not very durable at all, they are very sensitive to light.
  • They are most often smaller scale paintings.

DÜRER, AlbrechtYoung Hare1502Watercolor on paper, 251 x 226 mmGraphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna


most popular in the European Middle Ages in religious texts done by monks

paintings on parchment or vellum done with ink and color; decorated with gold leaf, jewels and other precious metals to represent their significant value

limitations: time consuming, monks were also limited to the size of the surface on which they were drawing

Illuminations done by hand were replaced by block books and the printing press that became faster and cheaper ways to produce books.


LIMBOURG brothersLes très riches heures du Duc de Berry: Fevrier (February)1412-16Illumination on vellum, 22,5 x 13,6 cmMusée Condé, Chantilly


MINIATURIST, FrenchBible moraliséec. 1250IlluminationÖsterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna


MINIATURIST, FlemishMary of Burgundy's Book of Hours1467-80Illumination on parchment, 22 x 16 cmÖsterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna

  • it was invented in the mid 1790's
  • it's based on the natural antagonism between oil and water
  • a print is made from a design drawn on a flat stone block with a greasy crayon. Then the ink is applied to the wet stone, and when printed, it adheres only to the open areas of the design
  • a limitation is that a print can't be to big in size
  • it allows for an artist to create fine art prints

Theodore Gericault Pity the Sorrows of a Poor Old Man1821 Romanticism Yale University Art Gallery


Francisco Goya

The Divided Arena

The Bulls of Bordeux (series of 4 lithographs)



Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid

  • First a metal plate is coated with on both sides with varnish, which is resistant to acid.
  • Then the artist creates the image directly on the varnish by using a sharp needle to expose the metal.
  • Then the metal is covered with acid, which exposes the lines made with the needle.
  • By controlling the amount of time the metal is exposed to the acid, the artist is able to make either fine, shallow lines or heavy, deep lines.
  • The artist is limited by the size since a printing press can only be so big. But it also allows the artist to make corrections if mistakes occur.

Francisco Goya

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters

1797-98Etching and aquatint, 216 x 152 mm

  • 2 processes: Laid and Couched work, and the Stem-stitch technique
  • Laid and couched work supplies blocks of color and requires 3 steps.Stem stitching outlines all solid areas.
  • Although embroidery limits color versatility to the colors of the thread, it can be a useful tool in telling a story, using words and pictures as the story progresses.Materials used to create an embroidery vary from linen to wool to tiny beads and gems.
  • Embroideries can take a long time to make and must be kept in a safe place away from humidity and direct sunlight in order to preserve the bright dyed wooly goodness.
  • Seminal Works: Women of Burgundy, Normandy, and Bayeux; The Bayeux Tapestry, 1066-82, Romanesque

UNKNOWN WEAVER, EnglishThe Bayeux Tapestry (detail)c. 1080Wool embroidered on a linen backgroundMusée de la Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde, Bayeux

  • The sculptor starts off with a big marble rock and then has to guild the rock into the form that the sculptor wants. The rock is very valuable and big. The sculptor uses metal tools called the mallet that is used to strike the chisel, the chisels and the pneumatic hammer.
  • Hard to sculpt a similar piece because you have to have a steady hand. In general, you have to have a very skillful steady hand.
  • First there is a heat resistant clay core made then wax is wrapped around the core and detail is done on the wax with a tool.Once the cast is made around the wax, the wax is melted and drained.Molten wax is poured in the cast to harden around the clay core.
  • The technique limits large scale sculpture because it would cause more complexity in creating a large sculpture and cast, that's why majority of bronze sculptures are smaller than other sculptures made by different mediums.



c. 1430Bronze, height: 158 cmMuseo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence



Equestrian Statue of Gattamelata

1447-50Bronze, 340 x 390 cmPiazza del Santo, Padua


Antonio del Pollaiuolo

Hercules and Anteus

1470sBronze, height: 45 cmMuseo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence

terra cotta
Terra Cotta
  • Low-fired clay – incised before firing
  • Used in ceramics or sculpting. Popular in Etruscan and ancient Roman times
  • Terra cotta is not as limiting as wood, stone marble or bronze. Artist can remodel as many times as needed until it is fired.
  • Terra cotta is fragile and scarce now. It must be preserved underground
  • Two seminal works: Head said to representUsurper Yoruba C.1200-1300 CE & Soldiers from the Mausoleum Qin Dynasty

BENEDETTO DA MAIANOChrist and the Samarian Woman-Terracotta, 41 x 77 cmMuseum of Fine Arts, Budapest

  • patterns or pictures are made by embedding small pieces of stone or glass (tesserae) in cement on surfaces such as walls and floors
  • mosaics is usually used to adorn public spaces, especially in churches; the small pieces of glass glitter as they reflect incident light
  • the artist is limited by the shape of the wall and by the technique itself which is extremely laborious: in order to create detail and subtle shading, the artist/craftsperson must use extremely small pieces of stone or glass
  • mosaic is very durable (unless there is an earthquake or bombing)
  • mosaic tends to appear in the earliest Christian churches

Pietro Cavallini Annunciation 1291 MosaicSanta Maria in Trastevere, Rome


Coppo di Marcovaldo

Christ in Majesty

mosaic on the vault (detail)c. 1301 (installation)mosaicBaptistry, Florence

  • Calotype- the first photographic process utilizing negatives and paper positives, invented by William Henry fox Talbot in the late 1830’s. It is paper coated with silver iodide.
  • Talbot came up with the name “calotype” from the Greek term for “beautiful image.”
  • Talbot's process became the basis of modern photography.
  • “soliloquy of the broom” gives evidence of his conviction that photography might offer a creative artistic outlet for those without the manual talent to draw or paint.

"The Open Door"‘ 18.8 x 23.1 cm. By 19th century  English polymath  William Henry Fox Talbot,  an inventor of photography. 

  • An early photographic process (developed from the camera obscure) developed by Louis Daguerre
  • A copper plate is coated with iodine, when the surface is exposed to light and dipped in a salt solution, an image is produced on the plate.
  • 3-D quality
  • Made in the early 1800s
  • Very realistic, they became relics for people
  • No copies, it’s a precious individual
  • It completely revolutionized the ability to realistically portray images

Louis Daguerre L’Atelier de l'artiste (The Artist’s Studio) 1837

Daguerreotype Société Française de Photographie, Paris


Nicholas H. Shepherd Abraham Lincoln



Library of Congress


Edgar Allan Poe

William S. Hartshorn 1848


Library of Congress

wet collodion photography

Wet Collodion Photography

What is Collodion?

Collodion= a thick liquid, made of nitrated cotton that has been dissolved in alcohol and ether

How is the technique employed?

A glass plate is coated with a mixture of light sensitive salts and collodion, once most of the liquid has evaporated the plate is submerged in a chemical compound (silver nitrate in early days, but with time the process changes) then QUICKLY placed into the camera for exposure. (Quickly, because the plate must be wet in order for the image to be captured). Once the plate has been exposed it must be QUICKLY brought to a darkroom to be bathed in an acidic solution that develops the image.

The Benefits of Wet Collodion Technique

The photographer can produce several prints from one plate in record time, or use the plate itself as a collodion positive (the desired image) vs. collodion negative. The plates are BIG!! Meaning bigger pictures!!!

Limitations of the Technique

A dark room is needed, meaning the technique is not very portable. The plates are huge and heavy!!! How is a photographer going to photograph nature? He/She is going to need a mule, maybe a couple of them.

Exemplary Use

stained glass

Stained Glass

Crucial characteristics of stained glass include-

elaborated designs and images using only basic colors of tinted glass pieced together using molten lead. 


Shards of colored glass are organized into images, and are then poured and formed using molten lead to create a pane. Limitations

Limitations include size and cost. Too big compromises the structure and break-ability of the glass. it is also very expensive to create works of stained glassStained Glass is most commonly found in church windows