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Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish Ch. 14 PowerPoint Presentation
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Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish Ch. 14

Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish Ch. 14

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Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish Ch. 14

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  1. Teleost Fish: Bonytongues Through Anglerfish Ch. 14

  2. Subdividision Euteleostei • Superorder Ostariophysi • Superorder Protacanthopterygii • Superorder Stenopterygii • Superorder Cyclosquamata • Superorder Scopelomorpha • Superorder Lampridomorpha • Superorder Polymixiiformes • Superorder Paracanthopterygii • Superorder Acanthopterygii

  3. Superorder Protocanthopterygii • Contains three orders • Esociformes • Osmeriformes • Salmoniformes

  4. Order Esociformes • Three families: • Esocidae-pikes • Umbridae-mud minnows • Daliidae-arctic minnows

  5. Family Esocidae • Pikes, pickerels, and muskellunge: • Predatory; sagittiform bodies • Large mouth & sharp teeth • Found in N. America and • Eurasia • Important recreational spp. • Largest: muskellunge (musky) • North-Central US • Central Canada

  6. Family Umbridae • mudminnows: • small • Slow-moving • Burrow in mud when disturbed

  7. Family Dalliidae • blackfishes: • Australia and Siberia • Able to survive frozen in the ice • Remain inactive until the thaw

  8. Order Osmeriformes • Two suborders: • Argentoidea (argentines deep-sea smelts) • Osmeroidei (smelts, galaxiids)

  9. Suborder Argentoidei • Argentines: • “deep-sea smelts” • very numerous • harvested commercially in mid-water trawls

  10. Suborder Osmeroidei • Smelts and galaxiids: • Smelts: • Small, silvery fish (< 30 cm) • Popular food fish • Freshwater, anadromous, marine • Australian salamanderfish (galaxiid) • Turn head sharply left or right while perched on its pectoral fin • Lacks lung; able to aestivate

  11. Smelts Salamanderfish

  12. Order Salmoniformes • Family Salmonidae • Contains three subfamilies: • Salmoninae - trouts, salmon, chars • Coregoninae - whitefishes • Thymalinae – graylings • North America and Eurasia • High latitude species • Require high DO and cooler water for survival and reproduction

  13. Subfamily Salmoninae • Trouts, salmons and chars • Many species have landlocked and anadromous forms • Onchorhynchusmykiss – rainbow trout (landlocked); steelhead (anadromous) • O. nerka – sockeye (anadromous); kokanee (landlocked)

  14. Subfamily Salmoninae • Anadromous species • Eggs laid in freshwater • Fry hatch and develop into parrs (large spots on side of body) • Transform into smolts (migrates to the sea) • Grow to large size in sea • Return to FW to spawn and typically die after spawning • Transfer of nutrients upstream from seas to FW streams important ecologically • Dead salmon decay, biomass is utilized by scavengers that may ultimately be preyed upon by young salmon

  15. Subfamily Salmoninae • Three important genera in North America: • Onchorhynchus – Pacific salmon • California through Canada to Alaska and throughout Siberia • Includes rainbow trout and cutthroat trout • Salmo – Atlantic salmon • Massachusetts to Canada; Iceland and Europe • Nearly extinct due to dams • Landlocked and anadromous forms • Includes brown trout – introduced to US; tolerates warm water and lower DO • Salvelinus – North American Chars • Lake trout and Brook trout

  16. Subfamily Coreginae • Whitefishes: • Formerly an important species • Numbers have greatly declined relative to introduced species

  17. Subfamily Thymalinae • Graylings: • Small trout-like fishes • Grey irridescent bodies • Long dorsal fins

  18. Marine Habitat • Classified into distinct areas: • Pelagic- area away from the shoreline • Pelagic divided into distinct regions • Surface to 200 meters = epipelagic • light penetration occurs • 200 meters to 1000 meters = mesopelagic • Faint amount of light • Animals migrate up at night; down during day • 1000 meters to 4000 meters = bathypelagic • Practically no light

  19. Stomiiformes • Marine hatchetfishes: • Extremely flattened laterally • Photophores on ventral side • Photophores = light producing organs • Provides countershading = less visible to predators

  20. Myctophiformes • Lantern fishes: • Small black fishes • Photophores along entire body • Present in great numbers • Important food for many species

  21. Lampridiformes • Bizarre species: • Opah • Found close to the surface; taken by the same pelagic longlines used to catch tunas and marlins and meat is sold oarfish

  22. Superorder Paracanthopterygii • Contains a number of orders that are grouped together because of similar morphology: • Order Percopsiformes • Order Ophidiiformes • Order Gadiformes • Order Batrachoidiformes • Order Lophiiformes

  23. Order Percopsiformes • Trout perch, pirate perch, and cavefishes: • Possess a true spine • Possess an adipose fin • Pirate perch: • Pelvic fins located below pectorals • Anus located in the throat • Cavefishes: • Adapted to caves • Eyes reduced • Lost their pigment • Elongated bodies • Lateral line system very well-developed Trout perch

  24. Anal opening Pirate Perch (Aphredoderus sayanus)

  25. Order Ophidiiformes • Cusk eels : • Taeniform body shape • Found all over world • Mostly marine • Some brightly colored • Pearl fishes • Very thin fishes • Sharp pointed tails • Live inside invertebrates • In cloaca of sea cucumbers • Tickles it to get back in

  26. Order Gadiformes • Cods and cod-like fishes (haddock, pollock): • Large and economically important group • Possess isocercal tails • Grand Banks fishery inexhaustible?? • Cod: • Collected in great numbers off the European coast • Contains little fat—can be dried • Used by ocean-going travelers as a food source

  27. Batrachoidiformes (frog-like) • Toadfishes, frogfish and midshipman: • Bottom dwellers • Lack pleural ribs • Large mouths • Modified dorsal fish for “fishing” • Able to produce sound: humming • Muscular vibrations of swim bladder • Midshipmen oddity: • 600-800 photophores • Arranged on their belly like the buttons of a midshipmen’s uniform...rare for shallow water fish. • Humming sound amplified by stationary boats....no sleep!!

  28. Midshipman, Porichthysnotatus Toadfish Frogfish “Harry” Frogfish

  29. Order Lophiiformes • Anglerfishes: • Most possess modified dorsal fins “rod and lures” • Batfishes- odd shaped...multicolered • Monkfish • Bottom dweller • Taken in trawls • Once considered trash fish “poor mans lobster”

  30. Batfish Monkfish and some Anglers are food in some countries, so you might see some store.... Anglerfish

  31. Just be careful who you take shopping!!