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Korea- Sweden-Finland

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  1. Korea-Sweden-Finland By: Tyler McGinnis, Lauren Tarpley, Cole Taylor, Kent Ingram, Brittany Self, Brittany Sanford, Phillip Dahlen, Trey Minnott

  2. History • Invaded by China, Japan, Russia, England, and France • “The Hermit Kingdom” • Tried to close off borders in 1860 • 1910 Japan annexed Korea • 35 years of mistreatment • No newspaper published • No political organizations • Student demonstrations and labor unions allowed them to assert themselves

  3. History • Korean men forced to help Japan in war against China • Adopt names • Speak Language • Destroy culture and identity • In 1945 Korea gained independence • Not full freedom until after Korean War • Korean War • Separated from North Korea

  4. South Korea • Pure and unified culture • Population 48 million • Mountainous terrain • Few Natural resources • Developing nation • Cities are very crowded • 22% live in Seoul

  5. Kimchi • “Immersing vegetables in salt solution” • Cabbage, sea salt, sugar, crushed red chili, radish, ginger, garlic, green onions • Pickle vegetables in winter time • Museum in Seoul dedicated to Kimchi • Cultural metaphor

  6. 60th Birthday • Celebrated • All major life goals attained • Relax and enjoy life to fullest • Chinese zodiac cycle 60 year long • Estimated life span 60 years

  7. Confucianism • Values and Culture • Father and son: governed on affection • Ruler and minister: governed by righteousness • Husband and wife: focused on attention to separate functions • Old and young: organized on proper order • Relationship based on authority and subordination • Different ethical values for different relationship

  8. Family Model • Eldest son is responsible for parents • 60th birthday • Fathers plate filled by eldest son’s wife • Begin eating in order by age • Rewarded if successfully carried out obligations • Importance of age • First question ask in conversation

  9. Role of Men and Women • Men: • Good workers • Represent the family • Women • Provide children (at least one male) • Care for family • Subservient in public

  10. Roles of Men and Women • Women face difficulty in workforce • 40% gap in earnings • 90% women go to college • 52% work • Lack of opportunity leads women to look elsewhere • ¼ Ladies Professional Golf Association is Korean

  11. Marriage • Functional relationship • Romantic love is nice but not critical • Carry on family lineage/ produce male heir • Arranged in many cases

  12. Finding Partners • Separation between men and woman before marriage • “Booking Clubs” • Younger people use to meet people

  13. Korean Work Ethic • Strong work ethic • Confucian beliefs • Korean men work very long hours • Minimized role and power at home • After hours functions • Downside • High suicide rates and decreased agriculture participation.

  14. Kimchi’s Public Role • Kimchi • What is it? • Collectivism • Loyalty vs. Truth • What’s good for the group?

  15. The Irish of Asia • Emotional differences • Kimchi from Korea • Compared to Japan • Catholicism and Christianity in Korea

  16. Harmony and “Face” • Kibun • Saving face • Saying no • Emotional Expression

  17. Business and Culture • Similar to Japanese • Keiretsu and Chaebols • Group decision making and risk aversion • Protect the individual • Personal space and relationships

  18. A Confucian Approach • Back to Kimchi • Attempts at preserving Korean heritage • National Flag • Yin and Yang

  19. Chapter 9 The Swedish Stuga

  20. Modern Sweden

  21. Modern Sweden • Maintains a firm commitment to cultural values • Has a constitutional monarchy system • Parliament consists of 349 seats • Currently an alliance consisting of various “center-right” parties holds the plurality • The Social Democrats held a majority for 65 out of the past 78 years

  22. Modern Sweden • The current administration wishes sell of the government’s interest in many firms • However, they want to maintain their commitment to the welfare of all Swedes • This is referred to as the “Swedish Model”

  23. The Swedish Model • Sweden ranks 10th on Human Development Index • The HDI combines GDP, adult literacy, and life expectancy measures • But, disguised unemployment is as high as 17% • Swedes are now reevaluating their cultural values • Represented by the stuga

  24. Facts about Sweden • Located between Norway and Finland • Sweden is slightly larger in area than California • Population: 9 million • 88% are ethnic Swedes • 12% are immigrants • One of the largest percentages in the world • Egalitarian and Democratic culture is appealing to many immigrants

  25. Facts about Sweden • 4 out of 5 couples are unwed • Married couples and non-married couples have the same legal rights • The divorce rate exceeds 50% • 95% of Swedes belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church • Though most people rarely participate • The literacy rate is 99%

  26. Early History • Swedish history begins around 500 CE • Many minor wars and skirmishes marked this time • The Svea tribe was the largest • In 1000 CE, the Swedish Vikings began trading with the Byzantine Empire and Russia • Many German groups dominated Sweden throughout the Middle Ages

  27. The Union of Kalmar • Consisted of Sweden, Norway and Denmark • Formed in 1397 under the rule of Queen Margareta of Denmark • Purpose was to fight German influence • The Union was successful in decreasing some power, but German influence continued for many centuries

  28. A Sovereign Sweden • Sweden gained independence when the Union of Kalmar dissolved in the early 16th century • Took steps to developing a parliamentary government • A national assembly (the Riksdag) was formed • Consisted of four estates: nobles, clergy, burghers, and peasants • In 1523 Gustav Vasa accepted the Swedish throne • The Vasa family is still on the Swedish throne

  29. Modern Evolution • During the 18th century, Sweden was unrivaled in the studies of natural sciences • This leadership extended for a long time due to the Swedish talent for orderly classification and systemization • Even today scientists travel to Sweden to gain access to the large compilations of data

  30. Modern Evolution • In the 18th century, the Riskdag limited the power of the monarch • In 1809, the Treaty of Fredrikshamn signed with Russia resulted in the loss of Finland • In 1905, Norway declared its independence • In 1912, the three Scandinavian countries declared their neutrality

  31. The Evolution of the Social Democratic System • The Industrial Revolution in the early 1900’s allowed Sweden to prosper • The compulsory education system and infrastructure supported industrialization • The development of timber and iron industries allowed Sweden to trade with other countries • Discovered that a partnership between private and public interests was the best system

  32. Social Democracy - Sweden • Merges Socialism and Capitalism • 6 Fundamentals - Furness and Tilton (1979) • Equality, Freedom, Democracy, Solidarity, Security, and Efficiency • Otherwise known as Swedish Model • Often called “humane capitalism” • Close collaboration of Government, Business, and Labor

  33. Social Democracy (cont’d) • Lagom • “Middle of the road” or “reasonable” • Derived from circle of men sharing a single mug • Represents: Unemotional Practicality • Swedish society: calm, well-ordered existence; part welfare, part technological advance, part economic innovation, and part common sense

  34. Social Democracy (cont’d) • High tax rates: 51% (2006) • Double American rates • Swedes understand high taxation • Necessary for prosperity and international competition • Sweden focuses on high economic welfare • Reflected by “Social Democracy”

  35. Social Democracy (cont’d) • Strong tendency to solve problems • Efficiency is key • Kesselman (1987) • Social Democracy is a hegemonic force in Swedish politics

  36. Social Democracy (cont’d) • Social Equality causes employees to be unmotivated • Many companies have moved abroad to avoid high taxation and high employee costs • Milner(1989) • Believes “Institutionalized social solidarity enables Swedes to feel secure… thus prepared to follow the market into promising directions”

  37. The Swedish Summer Home • Stuga – Swedish Summer Home • Modest and simple facilities, plain decor • Way to get back to nature • Alone or in small groups • Swedish Designs inspired by nature • IKEA derived design from simplistic nature • Carl Larsson (artist); represents country style • Individualism through self-development

  38. Love Of Untrammeled Nature and Tradition • National hymn: “Du Gamla du Fria” • Represents beauty of nature rather than national pride or supremacy • Strong emphasis on spending time in nature • River rafting, walking, camping, berry picking, etc. • Orienteering: Wandering the woods with map and compass • First nation to pass environmental protection law in 1909

  39. Love Of Untrammeled Nature and Tradition • Hofstede’s 53 nation study • Small villages within Sweden represent small power distance • Self reliant • Live “as they please” • Horizontal power structure; focus on equality • Emphasis on practicality • View war as impractical and non-beneficial • Neutral since last war in 1814

  40. Individualism Through Self Development • Summer home= solitude and quiet individualism • Self development • “Doing culture” • Misperception: Collectivist country • Gustav Sundburg, “We Swedes love and are interested in nature, not people.”

  41. Individualism Through Self Development • Unsociable • Typical treatment of visitors to Sweden • Swedish teenagers • Weaker bonds between generations • Hans Zetterberg, “ The milk of human kindness therefore flows less frequently from one human to another; instead, it is dispensed in homogenized form through regulations and institutions.”

  42. Individualism Through Self Development • Conformity • Individual rights • Splashed by a passing car • Ombudsman

  43. Equality • Everyman’s Right • Jamlikhet • Swedish machinery • Complicated and inefficient • “Red-tape Sweden”

  44. Equality • High tax rates • Family benefits • Equal pay • Many occupations divided by gender • Hofstede’s masculinity-femininity scale • Industrialization

  45. History and Nature • Pellervoinen created a forest in a treeless land. • The forest and nature have been the foundation of life for Finns. • “At the mercy of nature” • The dream of the Finns: have time in nature and to sauna

  46. History and Nature • The sauna and a nation of sturdy crofters- landless farmers who were “freemen” grew out of the forest. • Finns processed raw materials • Leader in both the paper and shipbuilding industries. • Technological innovations • The forest represented the basis for and symbolism of innovation • Message throughout Finland

  47. History and Foreign Control • Sweden for 700 years. • Finland transferred from Sweden into Russia. • Finnish identity • “Russification” • Johan Sibelius • Finlandia

  48. Independence • Finland became an independent nation in 1917 • Civil war occurred between the “Reds” and the “Whites” • “Reds” represented the ideology of communism • “Whites” represented the ideology of conservatism • Most controversial and emotionally loaded event in the history of Finland • Partial land redistribution by conservatives. • Finland was decades ahead of many other nations because of the land distribution to the landless.