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United States History. Chapter 30: The New Frontier and The Great Society. Election of 1960. Richard Nixon (R) and John F. Kennedy (D) Very close race that came down a few thousand popular votes However, television debates became the deciding factor of the election

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united states history

United States History

Chapter 30:

The New Frontier and The Great Society

election of 1960
Election of 1960
  • Richard Nixon (R) and John F. Kennedy (D)
  • Very close race that came down a few thousand popular votes
  • However, television debates became the deciding factor of the election
    • Nixon appeared nervous and tired in front of the camera
    • Kennedy appeared confident and relaxed
    • Television viewers thought JFK won, whereas radio listeners thought Nixon won
  • JFK became the youngest elected president at 43
    • T. Roosevelt was younger (42), but became president after McKinley was assassinated
jfk s foreign policy
JFK’s Foreign Policy
  • Continued anti-communist policies of previous presidents
    • Did not rely solely on nukes
    • Created other response preparations for communism (ex. Green Berets)
  • Created the Peace Corps to aid developing nations and hopefully deter communism
  • Alliance for Progress created to help Latin American nations economically
    • Proved a failure when money given to nations fell into hands of corrupt politicians
bay of pigs
Bay of Pigs
  • In 1959, Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista was overthrown by Communist sympathizer Fidel Castro and his followers
  • Concerned of a Communist nation so close to the US, Kennedy learned of a CIA based plan to overthrow Castro
    • Trained Cuban exiles would conduct the coup
    • US ships would aid the exiles
  • Commenced at Cuba’s Bay of Pigs on April 17, 1961
    • American aid was pulled at the last minute
    • Only took 72 hours for Cuba to crush the coup
    • Strengthened ties between Cuba and the USSR

The Bay of Pigs showed JFK to be weak

Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev demanded that the US recognize East German and pull all troops from the nation

Meanwhile, East Berliners streamed into West Berlin and more troops were sent

In August 1961, the Soviets helped to build a wall dividing Berlin

The wall stood until 1989, preventing people from escaping the Communist East Berlin

cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • The worst was to come when American spy planes over Cuba discovered Soviet missile silos on the island
    • Castro asked for weapons to protect from invasion
    • The missiles were capable of hitting cities in the US
  • JFK announced, on October 22, 1962, that any ship bound for Cuba would be turned back
  • Also demanded that the Soviets remove the missiles
  • For the next two days, the world teetered
    • Soviet ships sailed for Cuba with American bombers ready to go
cuban missile crisis1
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Neither side appeared to be backing down
  • On October 24, the Soviet ships turned around and headed back home
  • On October 28, Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles
    • JFK promised not to invade Cuba
    • Also secretly dismantled US missile sites in Turkey
  • The crisis led to an easing of nuclear tensions
    • Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) ended testing above ground and underwater
    • Established a hotline so direct contact could be made during a crisis
the kennedy white house
The Kennedy White House

JFK brought about a new view and love for the presidency

As a young man with a young family, their love of athletics and fine arts, and his handsome looks made him very popular

His wife, Jackie Kennedy, was especially popular

He surrounded himself very highly educated advisors, including his brother, Robert Kennedy, as attorney general

the new frontier
The New Frontier
  • JFK’s domestic program became known as the New Frontier
  • The economy was especially sticky during his term, with high unemployment and inflation
    • Inflation was checked, but unemployment remained high
    • He struggled to address taxes, aid to the poor and elderly, and health care because of a divided Congress
  • However, Kennedy strived to address poverty and racism in his days in office
november 22 1963
November 22, 1963
  • Preparing to campaign for the election of 1964, JFK went to Dallas on 11/22/1963
  • Riding in an open limo with Jackie, the governor of Texas and his wife, a sniper fired a fatal shot to JFK’s head along the route
  • Immediately, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested in the murder
    • Oswald was killed days later by Jack Ruby, upset over the assassination
    • Millions watched the funeral on TV, devastated by the murder
  • Lyndon Johnson was sworn in as president hours later
    • Appointed Chief Justice Earl Warren to investigate
    • Determined that one gunman fired the shots, with no conspiracy
    • Still debated today
johnson s presidency
Johnson’s Presidency
  • LBJ tried to continue JFK’s programs, but was very different from the charismatic leader
  • Some of his biggest ambitions were to address poverty, women’s rights, minority rights, and healthcare
    • Declared a War on Poverty with created several programs to address poverty
      • Head Start: low income preschool program
      • Volunteers in Service to America, a domestic version of the Peace Corps
      • Job Corps: job training for 16-21 year olds
  • Had to worry about reelection in 1964, but his ambition program became known as the Great Society
johnson s presidency1
Johnson’s Presidency
  • LBJ’s opponent in 1964 was Barry Goldwater
  • Goldwater was considered too extreme, promising to cut too much out, so LBJ won in a landslide
  • LBJ set out immediately to pass legislation
    • Medicare and Medicaid: health coverage for the elderly and poor
    • Elementary and Secondary Education Act: provide money to schools in low income areas
    • Dept. of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): provided money to provide adequate housing
    • Corporation for Public Broadcasting: organization for educational television (PBS)
johnson s presidency2
Johnson’s Presidency
  • Very instrumental in civil rights legislation
  • Active in environmental legislation
  • The Supreme Court of Johnson’s time also interpreted law in a liberal, activist manner
    • Many cases protected individual rights and criminal rights
  • Also was committed to fighting Communism
    • Sent troops to the Dominican Republic in 1965 to prevent an anti-American government establishment
    • Escalated the Vietnam conflict to unprecedented levels, eventually outspending the Great Society programs
    • Eventually led to Johnson not seeking reelection in 1968
    • However, many Great Society programs still exist today