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The First Industrial Revolution

The First Industrial Revolution

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The First Industrial Revolution

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  1. The First Industrial Revolution 1760-1820/1840

  2. Historical Significance of the First Industrial Revolution • An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different – agriculture and technology were not much changed in 2000+ years • The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically • More was created in the last 250+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history

  3. What was the First Industrial Revolution? • The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, from human labor to machines • The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered far-reaching changes to industrialized societies

  4. Industrial Revolutions • Dates • First Industrial Revolution • 1760-1820/1840 • Second Industrial Revolution • 1860’s-1910’s

  5. Transportation • Before the Industrial Revolution, people relied on the horse and their own feet to get around. • With the invention of the steam locomotive, transportation took a huge step forward. • The first two major railroad companies were the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads.

  6. Passenger carriers

  7. An original steam engine

  8. Steam locomotive

  9. Textiles • With the invention of the spinning jenny and the power loom, the textile industry took off. • Clothes could now be made far faster than ever before.

  10. Textiles: Spinning wheel • The spinning wheel was the first invention, but it was very slow. • Threads were spun one at a time, by hand.

  11. The spinning jenny • The spinning jenny could spin up to eight thread at time. The spinning jenny was much faster than the spinning wheel.

  12. The Spinning Mule • The spinning mule used water power to spin the thread, which was much faster than doing it by hand. • More cloth could now be made.

  13. The Power Mule

  14. The power loom • The power loom used water power to weave cloth • People could make a lot of cloth quickly.

  15. A cotton factory

  16. Agriculture • Advances in agriculture were also made. • The invention of the seed drill allowed farmers to plant many more seeds much more quickly. • The reaper allowed farmers to harvest their crops more efficiently. • More crops could now be grown feeding an increasing population.

  17. The seed drill

  18. The reaper • The reaper was used to cut down the harvest. As you can see, it would take a long time to do it by hand.

  19. The mechanical reaper The mechanical reaper was a lot faster than doing the hand reaper

  20. The Second Industrial Revolution 1860’s-1910’s

  21. An Age of Invention • From 1865 to 1905 the US had a surge of industrial growth which became known as the Second Industrial Revolution • What is the importance of the date 1865? • This new era began with numerous discoveries and inventions that spurred growth in manufacturing, transportation, and Americans everyday life • As Coal spurred the initial industrial revolution,steel and oil made the second industrial revolution possible • Steel was used in the construction of heavy machinery that mass produced goods

  22. Railroad tracks Bridges Building frames Machinery ( the more steel was produced the cheaper it was to buy) Steel was used for…

  23. Steel • With the invention of steel, buildings could be made much taller. • Steel was much harder than iron, which would bend if made too tall. • The steel industry created many new products, and led to the invention of the car.

  24. Smoke stacks of a factory

  25. A melting plant

  26. Stronger longer lasting rails Stronger bridges Taller multi-story buildings More Jobs people moving into cities This led to…

  27. Transportation • Railroads- linked isolated areas to the rest of the country • Steel was so affordable it led to the railroads laying more tracks • {Prior to the Civil war railroads in the U.S. averaged 100 miles in length} • The first transcontinental railroad was completed in1869 • Completed by Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad companies

  28. Effects of better transportation • First railroads provided many of the country’s jobs • Building locomotives and rail cars spurred on the steel industry • Better faster transportation out west increased western settlement • Towns sprang up around railroad stations • Companies could now sell products nationally

  29. The Car • Also known as the Horseless Carriage • {Innovations in Oil led to motors and the car} • Combustion engine powered by gas was invented in 1876 • Use of car was limited due to high cost

  30. Airplanes

  31. Flight • The internal combustion engine also led to advancements in flight • Orville and Wilbur Wright developed one of the first working airplanes • Dec. 17, 1903 near {Kitty Hawk North Carolina, Orville made the first piloted flight} • It lasted 12 seconds and went 120 feet, in a powered plane

  32. Telegraph and Telephone • Telegraph invented by Samuel Morse 1837 • Telegraph grew with the railroad and offices were located in train stations and strung wires along the railroad lines • Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 patented the telephone • Created jobs for women needed as operators • Bell Telephone became one of the longest lasting monopolies

  33. Andrew Carnegie • Andrew Carnegie became a millionaire in the steel business by putting all his competitors out of business. • He created U.S. Steel in Pittsburg.

  34. John D. Rockefeller • John D. Rockefeller became the richest man in the world in the oil business. • He created Standard Oil Company. • Oil began being used in all types of machines, like cars.

  35. Henry Ford • Henry Ford invented the first practical car, the Model T. • The car had been invented earlier, but Ford was the first to make the car affordable.

  36. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, child labor was used throughout the world, particularly in industrializing countries. Child labor there was primarily used in the textile industry.

  37. Factory Conditions for Children in the U.S. in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries • Factory owners preferred using children for some tasks because of their small size. • It was more profitable for factory owners to employ children than skilled adults. • Lack of sleep and an averaged eighteen-hour work day in the U.S. contributed to mistakes and injuries. • Some children in the U.S. were mentally and physically abused by their supervisors, and their safety was neglected by factory owners who cared more about profit than well-being.

  38. USA 1793 1830 1832 1837 1843 1892 1904 1916 1937 2014 In the U.S., in 1830, 55 % of mill workers in Rhode Island were children. http://cache.virtualtourist.com/1778376-mill_town_on_the_river-Lowell.jpg The Lowell mills employed mostly young women with an average age of fifteen to eighteen.

  39. USA 1793 1830 1832 1837 1843 1892 1904 1916 1937 2014 In the U.S., people started to question child labor, but laws were not established until much later. 4.bp.blogspot.com/.../ Child+Labor+Coal+Mines.jpg

  40. USA 1793 1830 1832 1837 1843 1892 1904 1916 1937 2014 In the U.S., the first state child labor law was established in Massachusetts. Photographed by Lewis Hine: http://www.archives.gov/press/press-kits/picturing-the-century-photos/sweeper-and-doffer-in-cotton-mill.jpg Children in Massachusetts under the age of fifteen had to attend school for three months.

  41. USA 1793 1830 1832 1837 1843 1892 1904 1916 1937 2014 In the U.S., states began limiting children to a ten- hour workday. . . . . . but the laws were not always enforced!

  42. USA 1793 1830 1832 1837 1843 1892 1904 1916 1937 2014 In the U.S. the National Labor Law Committee forms, and child labor law reform begins. Photographed by Lewis Hine: www.ymca.org.au/ about/Pages/History.aspx Child working as a spinner.

  43. USA 1793 1830 1832 1837 1843 1892 1904 1916 1937 2014 In the U.S., a new federal child labor law sets a minimum age for employment . . . Photograph by Lewis Hine: online-history.org/ Wc2.htm

  44. Child Labor in the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, families needed each member to contribute financially. This even included children due to the high demand for labor. However, children were mistreated, overworked, and accrued minimal wages for their work.