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Le cycle cellulaire et la mitose Pour être traduits en français. PHA Biology 9 Moretti/ Dickson. Chromosome Review. Chromosomes: DNA tightly coiled around little protein balls (histones) to make it very compact . Chromosomes unraveling into DNA . Nucleotide Base Pairs. DNA.

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le cycle cellulaire et la mitose pour tre traduits en fran ais

Le cycle cellulaire et la mitose Pour être traduits en français

PHA Biology 9

Moretti/ Dickson

slide2

Chromosome Review

Chromosomes: DNA tightly coiled around little protein balls (histones) to make it very compact

Chromosomes unraveling into DNA

Nucleotide Base Pairs

DNA

Gene:Instructions for making a protein that determines a trait

Another Gene: instructions for making a different protein that determines a different trait

slide3

Chromosome examen

Chromosomes: ADN étroitement enroulé autour de balles peu de protéines (histones) pour le rendre très compact

Chromosomes unraveling into DNA

Nucleotide Base Pairs

DNA

Gene:Instructions for making a protein that determines a trait

Another Gene: instructions for making a different protein that determines a different trait

chromosome review
Chromosome Review
  • Contain DNA
  • Number varies with organism:
    • Humans: 46
    • Cats: 32
    • Dogs: 72

Note: Page 341 in Textbook has a good picture of karyotype

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
    • Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.
the cell cycle overview
The Cell Cycle: Overview
  • One cell grows and divides into two new cells
  • Purpose:
    • Growth
    • Replace dead cells
    • Repair tissues after injury
    • Asexual reproduction (in single-celled organisms)

Amoeba reproducing

major steps of the cell cycle
Major Steps of the Cell Cycle
  • Interphase: growth; copying of chromosomes & organelles
    • G1 phase: Cell grows
    • S phase: DNA replicates
    • G2 phase: More growth;

cell prepares to divide

  • M-Phase:
    • MitosisChromosomes separate

to form two new nuclei

  • Cytokinesis:Cell splits to form two new identical cells
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
    • Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.
principales tapes du cycle cellulaire
Principales étapes du cycle cellulaire
  • Interphase: la croissance, la copie des chromosomes et les organites
    • La phase G1: cellule croît
    • Phase S: réplication de l'ADN
    • Phase G2: Plus de croissance;cellule se prépare à se diviser
  • M-Phase:
    • Mitose chromosomes distinctspour former deux nouveaux noyaux
  • Cytocinèse: cellule se divise pour former deux nouvelles cellules identiques
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
    • Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.
what do you notice about the chromosomes in g1 versus g2
What do you notice about the chromosomes in G1versus G2?
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
    • Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.
chromosome replication during the cell cycle
Chromosome Replication During the Cell Cycle

G1 Phase:

  • Chromosomes are un-replicated - each contains onecopy of its DNA

G2 Phase:

  • Chromosomes are replicated - each contains twoexactcopies of its DNA

S Phase:

Centromere – a small spot in the center of a chromosome

Centromere

DNA Replication creates replicated chromosomes

Un-Replicated Chromosome

Replicated Chromosome

Sister Chromatids

– two halves of a replicated chromosome

– exact copies of each other

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
    • Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.
more images of chromosome replication
More Images of Chromosome Replication
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
    • Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.
why do chromosomes replicate
Why do Chromosomes Replicate?
        • So they can split during mitosis and separate into two new cells
  • Each cell gets an exactcopyof each chromosome!
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
    • Describe the purpose and the 4 major steps of the cell cycle.
short activity plant cells in mitosis can you identify the different stages
Short Activity: Plant Cells in Mitosis Can you identify the different stages?
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.
m phase mitotic division
M-Phase: Mitotic Division
  • Mitosis:
          • Chromosomes separate to form two new nuclei
  • Cytokinesis:
    • Cell splits to form two new identical cells
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Describe the purpose and steps of mitosis and cytokinesis.
    • Draw diagrams showing how mitosis/cytokinesis separate chromosomes into two new cells.
    • .
stages of mitosis
Stages of Mitosis

Step 1: Prophase

Step 3: Anaphase

Step 2: Metaphase

Step 4: Telophase

interphase
Interphase

Animal Cell

Plant Cells

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.
mitosis stages prophase
Mitosis Stages: Prophase
  • Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide)
  • Spindle fibers form between the ends (poles) of cell.
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.
mitosis stages metaphase
Mitosis Stages: Metaphase
  • Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell
  • Spindle fibers attach to sister chromatids, as they prepare to pull them apart
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.
mitosis stages anaphase
Mitosis Stages: Anaphase
  • Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.
mitosis stages telophase
Mitosis Stages: Telophase
  • Two new nuclei form
  • Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods)
  • Mitosis ENDS
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.
cytokinesis
Cytokinesis
  • Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells – each with its ownnucleuswith identical chromosomes
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.
stages of mitosis1
Stages of Mitosis
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Explain how mitosis separates the cell’s DNA into two different nuclei to create two new cells.
quiz review dna structure replication and the cell cycle
Quiz Review: DNA Structure & Replication and the Cell Cycle
  • Schéma et décrire la structure de l'ADN et ...
  • Label les parties suivantes:
    • le sucre désoxyribose
    • Phosphate
    • bases azotées
    • des liaisons hydrogène.
  • Afficher bon appariement entre les bases azotées.
  • Définir chacun des termes suivants et expliquer
  • comment ils se rapportent tous à l'autre:
    • ADN
    • Les gènes
    • Chromosomes
    • Nucléotides
    • Décrire les étapes de la réplication de l'ADN.
  • Schéma et décrire la structure d'un chromosome.
    • Dessiner un chromosome et l'étiquette de la chromatides centromère et la sœur.
    • Distinguer entre les chromosomes non répliqués et reproduites.
  • Expliquer le résultat objectif et globale du cycle cellulaire.
  • Décrire ce qui se passe à chaque étape du cycle cellulaire:
    • Interphase
      • Phase G1
      • Phase S
      • Phase G2
    • Mitose
      • Prophase
      • Métaphase
      • Anaphase
      • Télophase
      • Cytocinèse