Using Information Technology Introduction to Information Technology Your Digital World
Parts of Information Systems • Hardware • Software • Data • Communications • Polices and Procedures • Users
Information Systems Hardware • Input • Processing • Storage • Primary • Secondary • Output • Communications
Input & Output • Input hardware - devices that translate data into a form the computer can process. • Output hardware - devices that translate information processed by the computer into a form that humans can understand.
Input Hardware – Keyboard Keyboard - a device that converts letters, numbers, and other characters into electrical signals that can be read by the computer’s processor. Types of Keyboards • Traditional computer keyboards • Specialty keyboards and terminals • Dumb terminals • Intelligent terminals (e. g. ATMs) • Internet terminals
Input Hardware – Pointing Devices • Pointing devices - control the position of the cursor or pointer on the screen. • Mouse • Trackball • Pointing Stick • Touchscreen • Touchpad • Pen/stylus input • Digitizing tablet Mouse
Input Hardware – Pointing Devices Trackball Touchscreen Pointing Stick Pen/Stylus input Touchpad Digitizing Tablet
Input Hardware – Scanning and Reading Devices • Source data-entry devices – create machine-readable data. • Scanners - use light-sensing equipment to translate images of text, drawings, photos, and the like into digital form.
Input Hardware – Scanning and Reading Devices • Bar-code readers: • Bar codes - photoelectric scanners that translate the symbols in the bar code into digital code.
Input Hardware – Scanning and Reading Devices • Mark-recognition and character-recognition devices – sense marks or characters • Types • MICR - character recognition system that uses magnetic ink and special characters • OMR - uses a device that reads bubble marks and converts them into computer-usable form. • OCR - converts scanned text from images to an editable text format that can be imported into a word-processing application and manipulated
Input Hardware – Scanning and Reading Devices • Fax machine – scans an image and sends it as electronic signals over telephone lines to areceiving fax machine. • Types of fax machines: • Dedicated fax machine • Fax modem Dedicated fax machine Fax modem circuit board
Input Hardware – Audio-Input Devices • Audio-input device - records analog sound and translates it for digital storage and processing. • Digitizing an audio signal: • sound board • MIDI board
Input Hardware – Webcams and Video-Input Cards • Webcam – a video camera attached to a computer to record moving images that can be posted on a website in real time.
Input Hardware – Digital Cameras • Digital camera - uses a light-sensitive processor chip to capture photographic images in digital form and store them on a small diskette. • Smartphone – most smartphones include a digital camera, as does the iPad Digital cameraattached to a computer
Input Hardware – Speech-Recognition Systems • Speech-recognition system - converts a person’s speech into digital signals.
Input Hardware – Sensors • Sensor – an input device that collects specific data directly from the environment and transmits it to a computer.
Input Hardware – Radio-Frequency Identification Tags • RFID tags – based on an identifying tag bearing a microchip that contains specific code numbers. RFID tag in a car for paying toll A tollbooth with RFID readers
Input Hardware – Human-Biology-Input Devices • Biometrics - the science of measuring individual body characteristics. Palm print recognition reader Screen of face recognition system
Processing • Taking the input and converting it to output • Related definitions • Data – The raw facts and figures that are processed into information • Information – Data that has been summarized or otherwise manipulated for use in decision making • Knowledge – Application of experience, ability, etc. to information
Processing Hardware • Central Processing Unit (CPU) – the “brains” of the computer • Control Unit – directs activity • Arithmetic/Logic Unit – does math and logical comparisons
Storage • Primary – main computer memory • Types of primary storage • ROM (Read Only Memory) Programmed into chip by manufacturer contains instructions for start-up. • RAM (Random Access Memory) Holds everything open and currently being worked on. • Secondary – permanent storage; “saving” a file • Types of secondary storage • USB drive • Hard drive • CD/DVD • Cloud
Output Hardware • Softcopy - data that is shown on a display screen or is in audio or voice form. • Hardcopy - printed output. Hardcopy Softcopy
Output Hardware – Display Screens • Display screens - output devices that show programming instructions and data as they are being input and information after it is processed.
Output Hardware – Display Screens • Pixel (picture element) - the smallest unit on the screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades.
Output Hardware – Display Screens • Factors affecting screen clarity: • Dot pitch (dp) - the amount of space between the centers of adjacent pixels; the closer the dots, the crisper the image. • Resolution - the image sharpness of a display screen; the more pixels there are per square inch, the finer the level of detail • Color depth - the amount of information, expressed in bits, that is stored in a dot • Refresh rate - the number of times per second that the pixels are recharged so that their glow remains bright
Output Hardware – Display Screens • Two types of monitors: • CRT - a vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer or video display terminal. • Flat-panel display - made up of two plates of glass separated by a layer of a substance in which light is manipulated CRT vs. Flat-panel
Output Hardware – Display Screens • Active-matrix versus passive-matrix flat-panel displays: • Active-matrix display - each pixel on the screen is controlled by its own transistor • Passive-matrix - a transistor controls a whole row or column of pixels
Output Hardware – Display Screens • Color & resolution standards for monitors:
Output Hardware – Printers • Printer - an output device that prints characters, symbols, and perhaps graphics on paper or another hardcopy medium. • Dpi - a measure of the number of rows and columns of dots that are printed in a square inch.
Output Hardware – Printers • Impact printer - forms characters or images by striking a mechanism such as a print hammer or wheel against an inked ribbon, leaving an image on paper. • Non-impact printer - forms characters and images without direct physical contact between the printing mechanism and paper.
Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers • Types of nonimpact printers: • Laser printer - creates images on a drum which are treated with a magnetically charged toner, and then transferred from drum to paper • Ink-jet printers - spray small, electrically charged droplets of ink from four nozzles through holes in a matrix at high speed • Thermal printers - use colored waxes and heat to produce images by burning dots onto special paper • Multifunction printer - output device that combines several capabilities, such as printing, scanning, copying, and faxing
Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers Replacing a laser toner cartridge Multi-function printer Ink-jet printer
Output Hardware – Sound, Voice, and Video • Sound output devices - produce digitized sounds, ranging from beeps and chirps to music • Voice output devices - convert digital data into speech-like sounds • Video output - photographic images which are played at 15-29 frames per second to give the appearance of full motion
Communications • Communications devices- electromagnetic devices and systems for communicating over long distances • Networks – means of connecting computers and communications devices • LAN: Local Area Network • WAN: Wide Area Network • WiFi: Wireless Network • VPN: Virtual Private Network
Communications – Networks • Parts of a Network • Nodes or workstations • Server/file server • Network interface cards (NIC) • Network Operating System (NIS) • Communications Media • Cabling • Wireless networks • Satellites
Communications – Networks • Types of networks • Client-server – network in which some computers (end-user computers) make requests for data/processing and other computers fulfill these requests • Clients – make requests • Servers – fulfill requests • Peer-to-peer – network in which computers are able to access each other directly
Software • Instruction for the computer • Types • Systems software – allows the computer to perform essential operating tasks and enables the application software to run • Applications software – allows user to perform specific tasks--solve problems, perform work, or entertain yourself
Hospital Information Systems (HIS) • Also called clinical information system (CIS) is a comprehensive, integrated information system designed to manage the administrative, financial and clinical aspects of a hospital. • This encompasses paper-based information processing as well as data processing machines.
Hospital Information Systems (HIS) • As an area of medical informatics the aim of an HIS is to achieve the best possible support of patient care and administration by electronic data processing. • It can be composed of one or few software components with specialty specific extensions as well as of a large variety of sub-systems in medical specialties (e.g. Laboratory Information System, Radiology Information System).
Clinical Information Systems (CIS) • CISs are sometimes separated from HISs in that the former concentrate on patient- and clinical state- related data (electronic patient record) whereas the latter keeps track of administrative issues. • The distinction is not always clear and there is contradictory evidence against a consistent use of both terms
Radiologic Information Systems (RIS) • used by radiology departments to store, manipulate and distribute patient radiological data and imagery. • The system generally comprises of patient tracking and scheduling, result reporting and image tracking capabilities.
Basic Features • Laboratory Information Systems commonly support the following features: • Patient Registration • Patient Tracking • Result(s) Entry • Reporting
Additional Features • In addition a RIS often supports the following: • Appointment booking • Faxing and emailing of reports • Custom report creation • HL7 interfaces with a PACS • Billing • Rule engines
Picture Archiving Communication Systems (PACS) • In medical imaging, picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are computers or networks dedicated to the storage, retrieval, distribution and presentation of images.
Types of PACS • Full PACS handle images from various modalities, such as • Ultrasonography • Magnetic • resonance imaging • positron emission tomography • computed tomography • Endoscopy • Mammography • radiography (plain X-rays).
Uses of PACS • PACS replaces hard-copy based means of managing medical images, such as film archives. • It expands on the possibilities of such conventional systems by providing capabilities of off-site viewing and reporting (distance education, tele-diagnosis). • Additionally, it enables practitioners at various physical locations to peruse the same information simultaneously, (teleradiology). • With the decreasing price of digital storage, PACS systems provide a growing cost and space advantage over film archives. • PACS is offered by virtually all the major medical imaging equipment manufacturers.
Digital Imaging And Communications In Medicine (DICOM) • A comprehensive set of standards (polices and procedures) for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging • It includes a file format definition and a network communications protocol • The communication protocol is an application protocol that uses TCP/IP to communicate between systems • DICOM files can be exchanged between two entities that are capable of receiving image and patient data in DICOM format
Digital Imaging And Communications In Medicine (DICOM) • DICOM enables the integration of scanners, servers, workstations, printers, and network hardware from multiple vendors into a picture archiving and communication system. • The different machines, servers, and workstations come with DICOM conformance statements which clearly state the DICOM classes they support. • DICOM has been widely adopted by hospitals and is making inroads in smaller applications like dentists' and doctors' offices
Examples of Modalities supported in DICOM are: • AS = Angioscopy • BI = Biomagnetic Imaging • CD = Color Flow Doppler • CF = Cinefluorography (retired) • CP = Culposcopy • CR = Computed Radiography • CS = Cystoscopy • CT = Computed Tomography • DD = Duplex Doppler • DF = Digital Fluoroscopy (retired)