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Chapter 19 Section 2. Nonmetals. Properties of Nonmetals. Gases or brittle solids Not malleable, ductile, or shiny Do not conduct heat or electricity well All elements to the right of the stair step plus hydrogen. Bonding in Nonmetals. Nonmetals hold tightly to their electrons!.

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properties of nonmetals
Properties of Nonmetals
  • Gases or brittle solids
  • Not malleable, ductile, or shiny
  • Do not conduct heat or electricity well
  • All elements to the right of the stair step plus hydrogen
bonding in nonmetals
Bonding in Nonmetals
  • Nonmetals hold tightly to their electrons!

Ionic Bonding

Covalent Bonding

  • Nonmetals take electrons from metals and become negative
  • NaCl
  • Nonmetals share their electrons with other nonmetals
  • O2
hydrogen
Hydrogen
  • 90% of the atoms in the universe
  • Highly reactive!
  • Most found on Earth is in water
  • Diatomic molecule = 2 atoms of the same element in a covalent bond
halogens
Halogens
  • Group 17
  • 7 valence electrons = very reactive!
  • Salt = a halogen atom ionically bonded to a metal
  • Forms diatomic molecules in gaseous state
uses of halogens
Uses of Halogens
  • Fluorine – prevents tooth decay
  • Chlorine – disinfects water and used to whiten things
  • Salts – to eat!
  • Bromine (the only nonmetal that is a liquid) – dyes
  • Iodine – prevents goiter
    • Sublimates – a solid turns directly into a vapor without forming a liquid
noble gases
Noble Gases
  • Exist as single atoms
  • Stable (outer energy levels are full)
  • Uses
    • Helium – blimps
    • Neon and argon – neon lights
    • Argon and krypton - lasers