Support session for MA in ELTWeek 8, Term 1Answering analysis type questions Dr. Gerard Sharpling Centre for Applied Linguistics
Characteristics of analysis question Open-endedness Flexibility Balance between different sections of assignment Need for close textual detail
Establishing a perspective Clear objectives ‘Why’ as well as ‘what’ Bring out key points Prioritise Global significance of issues Don’t just ‘tell the story’
Features of textual analysis Referring devices (e.g. According to, As x indicates….) Short built-in quotations State perceived purpose Emphasise relationships Prioritise features Intentions of writer (?)
Language Not transparent Strategic Self-conscious Rhetorical Manipulative Excludes and includes Blind spot
Example of propaganda […] the nature of the global threat we face in Britain and round the world is real and existential and it is the task of leadership to expose it and fight it, whatever the political cost […]. From speech by Tony Blair, cited by Kristennson (dalea.du.se/misc/download.aspx?pubId=308)
Statement of purpose The essay will be divided into four parts. First, Halliday’s concept of Multiple Themes will be presented and discussed. Second, four authentic texts based on the rules of Multiple Themes as well as why writers adopt certain Multiple Themes in the contexts analyze will be analyzed and discussed. Third, implications for Multiple Themes in teaching will be introduced. Finally, I will make a conclusion for Multiple Themes.
Indicating language function The metaphor “merd’ebene” serves both to enhance the beauty of the hair and to emphasize the exotic. The same triumphant energy of “Je la veuxagiter…”, “Je plongerai ma tete” etc is present in some of the splendid images and analogies which the rhythm itself sustains: “Fortes tresses, soyez la houle qui m’enleve”.
Prioritising The passage is full of rich description which conjures up clear images of the scene. At the beginning we are informed of the precise location: "grandsbruyèresterminées par des forêts". In fact, one of the most striking aspects of the passage is the attention to detail that we are provided with, as René lists the things he sees.
Bringing out meaning However, it is precisely this fictional ‘authentic experience’ that is being praised because it contains a communality of women’s experience and that the female characters serve as appropriate role models according to an ideal feminist representation. This sets up a somewhat paradoxical situation: the texts are praised as being realist because of the inclusion of idealism.
Writer’s purpose In text 1, the article is concerned with the education for overseas students in the UK. Much of the language describes the ideational functions. The author tries to describe the current and past events which might affect the number of overseas students in UK universities (for example, the Gulf War, 911 in America). Besides this, he also indicates the efforts they make to attract overseas students to study here.
Linking evidence and purpose The writer uses a lot of ‘we’ in the article because he tries to unite the ones in the country to promote UK education services for overseas students in order to increase the number of overseas students in UK. The article mainly focuses on presenting certain situation; therefore, language in ideational function dominates the article.
Relating back to literature Clearly, conjunctions serve as a guide to the path of ideas that the writer / speaker is following – signalling and / or signposting the direction of reasoning [cf. Bloor & Bloor p. 100].
Identifying strategies Referring to the content of the interview, when she talks about some events in her life, she uses a lot of coordinators and subordinators to link the clauses.
Keeping the literature in mind COHESION, according to them, is the primary marker of connectivity in a text [p. 4]. It is not, however, an entity on its own but a “mere” semantic concept referring to relations that “exist within the text, and that define it as a text” [op. cit.]. Those relations fall firstly into two broad categories
Wider significance By focusing on the “ex-centric”, these writers have highlighted both women’s issues and those of the men in their lives, creating a reflection of society as a whole.