Recategorization • Recategorization = translation strategy which consists in changing the grammatical category of the element keeping at the same time the equivalence of meaning. • Keep refrigerated = Conservare al fresco, conservare in frigorifero. • From = mittente.
When is recategorization used? • The syntactic structures of the source language may differ from the syntactic structures of the target language. Recategorization becomes advisable or mandatory when the structures of the two languages either are different or have different levels of frequency. The application of this strategy results in a modulation of the text. Among other results, this modulation can produce nominalization or denominalization. • Nominalization = verb or adjective in the ST → noun in the TT. • I’d rather exercise than eat too much = Preferisco l’esercizio al troppo cibo
Denominalization = noun in the ST → verb in the TT: For patrons only = riservato ai clienti Recategorization implies a change in grammatical category. A more general change is brought about by transposition, where other elements may be changed. Recategorization may be internal (within a given language), or may be a result of the passage from SL to TL.
Non credo che verrò • Credo che non verrò • Non penso che sia vero • Penso che non sia vero • Direi che è falso • Secondo me è falso
Recategorization in translation • No smoking → ………………. • No waiting → ………………. • No parking → ………………. • No entry → ……………….
Requests(oral/written) Requests are a typical example of different attitudes in the formulation: • Shut the door, please • Keep the window shut, please • Will you please shut the window Of course, different formulas can be used in the SL too, what we have to take into account is their original formulation and our approach in translation. How do we behave when translating?
Denominalization • As time goes by Colloquial: Man mano che il tempo passa But in case of denominalization: • Con il passare del tempo. Notice the function of the infinitive: con il passare and analyze the effect it produces. • At the end of the day Colloquial: Alla fine del giorno/della giornata But in case of denominalization: • Sul finire del giorno. Here too, analyze the effect produced by the use of the infinitive. Is it a verb? What impression does this form convey?
Recategorization: adjective+noun → noun+ suffix use of suffixation (English→Italian) • A nasty word • A nasty look • A nasty temper • A light wind • A tiny box • A big man
Recategorization and sentence structure • Though their life was modest they believed in eating well • There was no sign of Gabriel and his wife • Gabriel glanced at her • Listening to the skirts that swept • It had gone off in splendid style
Recategorization and sentence structure • For an Arab owned her • Ne era proprietario un arabo
As the buttons of his overcoat slipped with a squeaking noise through the snow-stiffened frieze, a cold fragrant air from out-of-doors escaped from the crevices and folds. • Via via che i bottoni uscivano scricchiolando fuor dal tessuto, la fragranza fredda e pungente dell’aria esterna sfuggiva dalle pieghe e dalle aperture del mantello.
stiffened snow frieze (tessuto di lana morbido e soffice) irrigidito Morbida e soffice fredda
Adjective and adverb • Nervous, the man opened the parcel = • Nervously, the man opened the parcel • Nervous= nervously = ?
Recategorizing adverbs in translation • Aunt Kate frowned severely = ? • Gabriel laughed nervously = ? • She said, almost testily = ? • It had gone off in splendid style = ?
Recategorization of adverbs • Aunt Kate frowned severely = Zia Kate aggrottava le sopracciglia severa • Gabriel laughed nervously = Gabriel rise nervoso • She said, almost testily = Disse in tono un po’ brusco • It had gone off in splendid style = Era sempre riuscito splendidamente
Sentence structure • By the expression sentence structure we mean the order in which the elements appear. This order is common but by no means fixed. It is a principle of sentence organization that what is contextually familiar comes early (relatively early) while the part which has to be emphasized or which conveys the greatest information is given the prominence of end focus. • The normal string is SVO • The emphatic string stresses other elements of the sentence. • Both strings may be used, in English and in Italian.
Translators in the European Parliament must meet the highest standards of accuracy in their work and ensure consistency with a very large corpus of documents. • The highest standards of accuracy must be ensured when working for the European Parliament. • Consistency must be ensured when working with a very large corpus of documents.
All documents are checked and proofread by translators before delivery. • Translators check and proofread all documents before delivery. • The European Council has decided to relaunch the Lisbon Strategy through a partnership for growth and jobs. • It is through a partnership for growth and jobs that the European council has decided to relaunch the Lisbon Strategy. • The Lisbon Strategy has been relaunched by the European Council through a partnership for growth and jobs.
English vs Italian • What about the presence and position of the subject in Italian? • What about the presence and position of the subject in English? • I’ll think about it/I’ll think about it Italian: 1)……….. 2)…………… • She said she would come Italian: …………………….. • I can’t tell him Italian: ……………………..
Sentence structure • Agreement of verb with subject. Different rules in English and in Italian • Notional concord (agreement of verb with subject according to the idea of number rather than actual presence of grammatical marker for that idea) • The government have passed four bills And in Italian? ……..
Sentence structure Proximity principle in concorde (agreement of the verb with noun or pronoun closely preceding it, sometimes in preference to agreement with headword of subject) • No one except his closest friends agree with him • Either my wife or I am going And in Italian?