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Chapter 9

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  1. Chapter 9 Qualitative Research

  2. Learning Objectives • Understand how qualitative methodologies differ from quantitative methodologies • Understand the controversy surrounding qualitative research • Understand the types of marketing decisions that use qualitative methodologies • Understand the different qualitative research methodologies

  3. The Importance of Qualitative Research “Most of what influences what we say and do occurs below the level of awareness. That’s why we need new techniques: to get at hidden knowledge – to get at what people don’t know they know.” Jerry Zaltman

  4. Qualitative Research in the Research Process Data Collection Data Analysis

  5. Group Interviews Focus Groups Observation IDIs Ethnography Case Studies Action Research Grounded Theory Qualitative Research Data Collection Techniques

  6. Content Analysis Other Techniques Artifacts Behavioral Observations Trace Evidence Debriefings Qualitative Research

  7. Market Segmentation Advertising Concept Development New Product Development Sales Analysis Sales Development Package Design Brand Image Positioning Retail Design Process Understanding Uses of Qualitative Research for Marketing

  8. Data Sources People Organizations Texts Environments Artifacts/ media products Events and happenings

  9. The Roots of Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Economics Sociology Psychology Semiotics Anthropology Communication

  10. Distinction between Qualitative & Quantitative Theory Building Theory Testing

  11. Qualitative Understanding Interpretation Quantitative Description Explanation Exhibit 9-2 Focus of Research

  12. Qualitative High Participation-based Quantitative Limited Controlled Exhibit 9-2 Researcher Involvement

  13. Qualitative Non-probability Purposive Small sample Quantitative Probability Large sample Exhibit 9-2 Sample Design and Size

  14. Qualitative Longitudinal Multi-method Quantitative Cross-sectional or longitudinal Single method Exhibit 9-2 Research Design

  15. Qualitative Verbal or pictorial Reduced to verbal codes Quantitative Verbal descriptions Reduced to numeric codes Exhibit 9-2 Data Type and Preparation

  16. Qualitative Nonquantitative; human Judgment mixed with fact Emphasis on themes Quantitative Computerized analysis Facts distinguished Emphasis on counts Exhibit 9-2 Data Analysis

  17. Qualitative Shorter turnaround possible Insight development ongoing Quantitative May be time-consuming Insight development follows data entry Exhibit 9-2 Turnaround

  18. Exhibit 9-3 Qualitative Research and the Research Process

  19. Pretasking Activities Use product in home Bring visual stimuli Create collage Keep diaries Draw pictures Construct a story

  20. Exhibit 9-4 Formulating the Qualitative Research Question

  21. Project’s purpose Researcher characteristics Schedule Types of participants Budget Topics Choosing a Qualitative Method Factors

  22. NonProbability Sampling Purposive Sampling Snowball Sampling Convenience Sampling

  23. Qualitative Sampling General sampling rule: You should keep conducting interviews until no new insights are gained.

  24. Recommends topics and questions Controls interview Plans location and facilities Proposes criteria for drawing sample Writes screener Recruits participants Develops pretasking activities Prepares research tools Supervises transcription Helps analyze data Draws insights Writes report Interviewer Responsibilities

  25. Heading Screening requirements Identity information Introduction Security questions Demographic questions Product/ brand usage/ purchase questions Lifestyle questions Attitudinal and knowledge questions Articulation and creative questions Offer/ Termination Exhibit 9-7 What’s Included in a Recruitment Screener?

  26. Exhibit 9-6 The Interview Question Hierarchy

  27. Interview Formats Unstructured Semi-structured Structured

  28. Requirements for Unstructured Interviews Developed dialog Distinctions Probe for answers Interviewer creativity Interviewer skill

  29. The Interview Mode Individual Group

  30. Exhibit 9-5 IDI vs Group

  31. Oral histories Sequential interviewing Life histories Cultural interviews Critical incident techniques Exhibit 9-8 Types of Research using IDIs Types Ethnography

  32. Laddering Association Semantic Mapping Sentence Completion Sensory sorts Cartoons Imagination Exercises Component Sorts Thematic Apperception Projective Techniques Data Collection Techniques

  33. Group Interviews • Dyads • Triads • Mini-Groups • Small Groups (Focus Group) • Supergroups

  34. Determining the Number of Groups Scope Number of distinct segments Desired number of ideas Desired level of detail Level of distinction Homogeneity

  35. Group Interview Modes Face-to-Face Telephone Online Videoconference

  36. Combining Qualitative Methodologies Case Study Action Research

  37. Merging Qualitative and Quantitative Conduct studies simultaneously Ongoing qualitative with multiple waves of quantitative Perform series: Qualitative, Quantitative, Qualitative Quantitative precedes Qualitative

  38. Dynamic Survey wins AMA EXPLOR Award

  39. Action research Case study CAPI Content analysis Creativity session Ethnography Focus groups Group interview IDI Convergent interviewing Critical incident technique Cultural interviews Grounded theory Life histories Oral history Sequential interviewing Interview Key Terms

  40. Interview guide Moderator Non-probability sampling Pretasking Probability sampling Projective techniques Cartons Component sorts Imagination exercises Laddering Semantic mapping Brand mapping Sensory sorts Sentence completion Thematic Apperception Test Word or picture association Qualitative research Quantitative research Recruitment screener Triangulation Key Terms (cont.)