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Environmental Awareness knowledge and parameters of Environmental impact assessment (EIA) And Initial Environmental Examination (IEE). Dr. Amjad Ali Khan Deputy Director (EIA) EPA-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Environment.

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Environmental Awareness knowledge and parameters of Environmental impact assessment (EIA) And Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)

Dr. Amjad Ali Khan

Deputy Director (EIA)

EPA-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

  • It includes the conditions under which any individuals or thing exists, live or develop.
the environment of human being includes
The Environment of Human Being Includes:
  • Abiotic Factors:-

Land, water, atmosphere, climate, sound, odours and taste.

  • Biotic Factors:-
  • Fauna (animal life of a region or geological period) Flora (the plants of a particular region or geological period) Ecology, bacteria and viruses; and all those social factors which make up the quality of life.
how the word environment emerged
How the Word Environment Emerged:
  • The word environment emerged in response to the public health:
  • In sanitary (dirty or germ carrying) dwellings and streets.
  • Contaminated public water supplies.
  • Drain and sanitation.
  • Public nuisances.
  • Unhygienic food processing.
  • Refuse dump.
  • Epidemics (wide spread of diseases)
eia definition
EIA Definition

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) refers to the evaluation of the environmental impacts likely to raise from a major project significantly affecting the environment.

most definitions recognize the following four basic principles
Most definitions recognize the following four basic principles
  • Procedural principle; EIA establishes a systematic method for incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making;
  • Informational principle; EIA provides the necessary elements to make an informed decision;
3. Preventive principle; EIA should be applied at the earliest opportunity within the decision-making process to allow the anticipation and avoidance of environmental impacts wherever possible; and

4. Iterative principle; the information generated by EIA is made available to interested parties to elicit a response which in turn should be fed back into EIA process.

purpose of the assessment
Purpose of the Assessment.
  • To identify and assess any potentially adverse environmental effects of a new development.
  • The adverse impacts could be avoided or reduce.
  • To ensure that environmental consequences were taken into account during planning, designing & decision Making process.
  • To influence how it is subsequently managed during its implementation.
the origin of eia
The Origin of EIA:

Environmental Impact Assessment emerged in the United States as a response to the rise of environmental movements of the 1960s that raised awareness of the serious environmental effects of human activities which were inadequately controlled by existing planning regulation and pollution control measures.

spread of eia to other countries
Spread of EIA to other countries:

The spread of EIA to other countries gained momentum due to four fundamental factors:

  • First, an increasing awareness among the general public of the danger and impacts of major development and new technologies due to a better scientific knowledge and publicity.
  • Secondly, the increasing activities of environmental pressure groups, For example “Friends of the Earth” in the UK.the political effectiveness of these groups was intensified by scientific evidence and media coverage.
The third, was the widespread concern about the sheer scale of resource developments and their associated environmental effects.
  • Fourth, all of the above reasons made the western developed nations more cautious and responsive to environmental concerns.
the eia process
The EIA Process:

EIA may be presented as a series of stages.

screening initial environmental examination iee
Screening/Initial Environmental Examination (IEE):

The process of an EIA commences at the early stages of a project. When the project is first considered, not when construction has begun. Once a developer has identified a need, assessed project design and site; the next step is to see the positive and negative effects of this development on the environment. The outcome of the screening process is a decision to either include or exclude the development from the full EIA Process.


Should a formal EEA be required then the next phase is to define the issues which need to be addresses. Scoping is a very key stage of the EIA process in which those impacts which might have significant effect on the environment, to be addressed in the EIA, are determined.

steps to be considered during scoping
Steps to be considered during scoping:
  • Develop a communication plan (decide who to talk to and when).
  • Assemble information that will be the starting point of discussion.
  • Make the information available to those whose views are to be obtained.
  • Find out what issues people are concerned about.
Look at the issues from a technical or scientific perspective in preparation for further study.
  • Organize information according to issues including grouping and setting priorities.
  • Develop a strategy for addressing and resolving each key issue, including information requirements and terms of reference for further studies.
eia report preparation
EIA Report Preparation:

Once it has been determined that a project has potentially significant impacts on the environment and the main issues to be considered in the study have been identified, the EIA has to be undertaken and presented in the form of an Environmental Impact Assessment report.

The assessment must determine the significance of direct and indirect impacts, both beneficial and adverse, and the duration of the impacts.

eia report normally include the following information
EIA report normally include the following information:
  • The impact the project would have on the physical environment.
  • Any possible pollution of the soil, of waters of all kinds such as surface, underground, costal and of the atmosphere.
  • The impact of the project on wildlife, the natural habitat and all other ecological factors.
  • The project’s likely influence on the qualities of life of the local populations.
  • Any influence the project may have on existing industry and employment.
  • Any need that may result for new or improved infrastructure such as utilities, transport, housing, school recreational amenities etc.
eia report review
EIA Report Review:

Once the EIA is completed and the EIA report is submitted to the competent authority, it has to be ensured that the EIA has been conducted properly, that all of the necessary analysis have been undertaken and are contained in the final report. It is necessary to develop review criteria to check the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the EIA Report.

The review can be carried out by decision maker or by review committee, however effective review criteria should allow an authority to:

  • Ensure that all relevant information has been analysed and presented.
  • Assess the validity and accuracy of information contained in EIA Report.
Quickly become familiar with the proposed project and consider whether additional information is needed.
  • Assess the significance of the project’s environmental effects.
  • Evaluate the need for mitigation and monitoring of environmental impact and advise on whether a project should be allowed to proceed.
decision maker
Decision Maker:

Once the study is finished and EIA report is submitted, the responsible decision-makers start what is often the difficult task of balancing environmental, economic, political and technical factors in reaching a final decision regarding the course of action to be taken.


Monitoring is an activity undertaken to provide specific information on the characteristics and functioning of environmental and social variables in space and time. The monitoring activities can be classified as:

  • Baseline; monitoring conducted before the development of the project and oriented towards establishing the baseline environmental conditions.
Construction;p monitoring carried out during the construction and oriented either to the emissions and discharges of the installation or to the status of the environmental variable.
  • After-use; monitoring to be carried out when the installation is left or has finished its operative period and oriented to residual emissions, e.g.long term evaluation of the environmental conditions.
pakistan environmental protection act pepa 1997
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA), 1997

Section 12 of PEPA, 1997.

Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment-(1) No proponent of a project shall commence construction or operation unless he has filed with the Federal Agency an initial environmental examination or, where the project is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect, an environmental impact assessment and has obtained from the Federal Agency approval in respect thereof;



a agriculture livestock and fisheries etc
(A)Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, etc.

1) Poultry, livestock, stud and fish farms with total cost of more than 10 million rupees.

2) Projects involving repacking, formulation or warehousing of agriculture products.

b energy
  • Hydroelectric Power generation less than 50 MW.
  • Thermal Power generation less than 200 MV.
  • Transmission Lines less than 11KV, and large distribution projects.
  • Oil and Gas transmission system.
  • Oil and Gas extraction projects including exploration, production, gathering system, separation and storage.
  • Waste-to-energy generation projects.
Manufacturing & Processing.
  • Ceramics and glass units with total cost of more than 50 million rupees.
  • Food Processing industries including sugar mills, beverages, milk and diary products, with total cost of less than 100 million rupees.
  • Man made fibers and resin projects with total cost less than 100 million rupees.
  • Manufacturing of apparel including dying and printing, with total cost of more than 25 million rupees.
  • Wood products with total cost of more than 25 million rupees.

Mining & Mineral Processing

  • Commercial extraction of sand gravel, limestone, clay, sulphur and other minerals not included in Schedule II with cost of less than 100 million rupees.
  • Crushing, grinding and separation processes.
  • Smelting plants with total cost of 50 million rupees.


  • Federal or provincial highways (except maintenance, rehabilitation or reconstruction of existing mettaled roads) with total cost of less than 50 million rupees.
  • Ports and harbour development for ships less than 500 gross tons.

Water Management, Dams, Irrigation and Flood Protection.

  • Dams and reservoirs with storage volume less than 50 million cubic meters or surface area less than 08 square kilometers.
  • Irrigation and drainage projects serving less than 15,000 hectares.
  • Small scale irrigation system with total cost less than 50 million rupees.


Water Supply and Treatment.

Water supply schemes and treatment plants with total cost of less than Rs. 25 million rupees.



Waste Disposal

Waste disposal facility for domestic or industrial wastes, with annual capacity less than 10,000 cubic meters.



Urban Development and Tourism.

Housing schemes.

Public facilities with significant off-site impacts e.g, hospital wastes.

Urban development projects.

j other projects
(J)Other Projects.
  • Any other project for which filing of an IEE is required by the Federal Agency under sub-regulation (2) of regulation.
schedule ii


a energy
  • Hydroelectric power generation over 50 MW.
  • Thermal power generation over 200 MW.
  • Transmission lines (11 KV and above) and grid stations.
  • Nuclear Power plants.
  • Petroleum refineries.
b manufacturing and processing
(B)Manufacturing and Processing
  • Cement Plants.
  • Chemicals projects.
  • Fertilizers plants.
  • Food processing industries including sugar mills, beverages, milk and dairy products with total cost of Rs. 100 Million and above.
  • Industrial Estates (including export processing zones)
6. Man-made fibers and resin projects with total cost of Rs. 100 Million and above.

7. Pesticides (manufacture or formulation).

8. Petrochemicals complex.

9. Synthetic resins, plastic and man-made fibers, paper and paperboard, paper pulping, plastic products, textile (except apparel), printing and publishing, paints and dyes, oils and fats and vegetable ghee projects with a total cost more than Rs. 10 Million.

10. Tanning and lather finishing projects.


(C) Mining and Mineral Processing. 1. Mining and processing of coal, gold, copper, sulphur and precious stones. 2. Mining and processing of major non-ferrous metals, iron and steel rolling. 3. Smelting plants with total cost of Rs. 50 Million and above.

d transport
  • Airports.
  • Federal or provincial highways (except maintenance, rebuilding or reconstruction of existing roads) with total cost of Rs.50 million and above.
  • Ports and harbors development for ships 500 gross tons and above.
  • Railway works.
e water management dams irrigation and flood protection
(E)Water Management, Dams, Irrigation and Flood Protection.
  • Dams and reservoirs with storage volume 50 million cubic meters and above or surface area of 08 square kilometers and above.
  • Irrigation and drainage projects serving 15,000 hectares and above.
f water supply schemes and treatment
(F)Water supply schemes and treatment.
  • Water supply schemes and treatment plants with total cost of Rs. 25 million and above.

(G) Waste Disposal1. Waste disposal and / or storage of hazardous or toxic wastes (including land fill sites incineration of hospital toxic waste). 2. Waste disposal facility for domestic or industrial waste with annual capacity more than 10,000 cubic meters.


Urban development and tourism.

  • Land use studies and urban plans (large cities).
  • Large scale tourism development projects with total cost more than Rs. 50 million.

Environmentally Sensitive Areas.

1. All projects situated in environmentally sensitive areas.

Industrial development
  • Effective use of resources
  • Sustainable development

Thanks for listening.