hydrocarbon derivatives n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Hydrocarbon Derivatives PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Hydrocarbon Derivatives

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31

Hydrocarbon Derivatives - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 146 Views
  • Uploaded on

Hydrocarbon Derivatives. Alcohols Ethers Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic Acids Esters. Hydrocarbon Derivatives. These are organic compounds that are based on hydrocarbons with the addition of specific functional groups A functional group is a reactive group of atoms ( eg . –OH).

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Hydrocarbon Derivatives' - garvey


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
hydrocarbon derivatives

Hydrocarbon Derivatives

Alcohols

Ethers

Aldehydes

Ketones

Carboxylic Acids

Esters

hydrocarbon derivatives1
Hydrocarbon Derivatives
  • These are organic compounds that are based on hydrocarbons with the addition of specific functional groups
  • A functional group is a reactive group of atoms (eg. –OH)
slide3

Due to the reactivity of the functional groups, we can determine the physical and chemical properties of compounds

  • We also classify compounds based on these groups
  • We will now explore six groups of hydrocarbon derivatives
alcohols1
Alcohols
  • An organic compound containing the hydroxyl, –OH, functional group
  • Have the general formula of R—OH
  • The “R” represents the alkyl group
  • Example:

CH3—CH2—OH

three classes of alcohols
Three classes of Alcohols
  • Primary Alcohol (1°) – the OH group is bonded to a carbon that is only bonded to one other carbon
  • Secondary Alcohol (2°)– the OH group is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to two other carbon atoms
  • Tertiary Alcohol (3°)– the OH group is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to three other carbon atoms
naming rules
Naming Rules
  • Locate the longest carbon chain (must contain the carbon attached to the –OH group.) Name the parent alkane
  • Replace the –e at the end of the alkane name with –ol
  • Number the chain so that the –OH group has the lowest number
  • Add a position number before the name of the root to indicate the position of the –OH group
  • Name and number any branches (as you would for alkanes)
  • Put it all together: branches + root
try it
Try it!
  • Name this alcohol and state whether it is primary, secondary or tertiary.

CH3—CH2—CH2—OH

one more
One more...
  • Name this alcohol and state whether it is primary, secondary or tertiary.

CH3—CH—CH2—CH2—CH3

|

OH

ethers
Ethers
  • An organic compound that has two alkyl groups joined by an oxygen atom
  • Has the general formula of R—O—R`
  • R and R` indicate two alkyl groups
  • The can be the same or different
  • Example:

CH3—CH2—O—CH3

how do we get to this
How do we get to this?
  • You can think of alcohols and ethers as derivatives of water!

H—O—H Water

R—O—H Alcohol

R—O—R` Ether

rules for naming common names
Rules for naming Common Names
  • List the alkyl groups that are attached to the oxygen atom, in order of increasing length.
  • Place the suffix –ether at the end of the name

No numbers are needed to show the location of the oxygen atom!

try it1
Try it!

Name these ethers

CH3—CH2—O—CH2—CH2

CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2—O—CH2—CH3

aldehyde
Aldehyde
  • Contain a carbonyl functional group C=O
  • Has the general formula R-CHO
  • Have characteristic scents and tastes
    • Example – Cinnamon or Formaldehyde
naming aldehydes
Naming Aldehydes
  • The carbonyl group will always be on a terminal carbon, thus there is no need to give a position number
  • Simply name the carbon chain; drop the –e from the end and add –al; give the C=O position 1
  • Add branches (if any) as you have for all others!
try some
Try Some

O

HC—CH2—CH2—CH3

CH3—CH2—CH—CH

||

O

||

|

CH2—CH3

ketones1
Ketones
  • Contain the carbonyl group C=O
  • Has an alkyl group on either side of the C=O
  • General formula R-CO-R`
naming ketones
Naming Ketones
  • Find the longest carbon chain containing C=O
  • Number the chain so that C=O has lowest number
  • Drop the final –e from the alkane name and add –one
  • Name and add branches as you would for alkanes
try these
Try These

O

CH3—CH2—CH2—C—CH3

CH3—CH—C—CH2—CH2—CH3

|

CH3

||

O

||

carboxylic acids1
Carboxylic Acids

O

  • Contain a carboxyl group

—C—OH

  • General formula of R—COOH
  • Polar molecules
  • Soluble in water
  • Have high MP and BP

||

naming carboxylic acids
Naming Carboxylic Acids
  • Name the parent alkane; drop the –e at the end of the alkane name and add –oic acid
  • Carboxyl group is always given position one (no need to state this!)
  • Name any branches as we do for alkanes
try some1
Try some

O

CH3—C—OH

CH3—CH—CH2—C—OH

|

CH3

||

O

||

esters1
Esters
  • Derivatives of carboxylic acids
  • Contains the functional group

—C—O—

  • General formula RCOOR`
  • Example:

CH3—CH2—C—O—CH3

O

||

O

||

naming esters
Naming Esters
  • Choose the main part of the ester, containing the C=O group. Name this as the parent acid.
  • Replace the –oicacid with –oate
  • Name the second part of the ester as an alkyl group
  • Put them together – alkyl group + parent acid
slide30

CH3—CH2—C—O—CH3

We would name this methyl propanoate

O

||

Alkyl Group

Parent acid

try one
Try One

CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2—C—O—CH2—CH3

O

||