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What are you working towards? • One 3,000-3,500 word essay examining why the British gave India her independence in 1947 • One 500 word essay commenting on which books, articles and primary sources you found most useful • Now and 1st term: taught course • 2nd term: writing coursework independently but under supervision – not a CA • Deadline: Friday 28 March 2014
Key points • You have a choice of 12 titles such as: • ‘With reference to the period 1847-1947, how important was the nationalist movement in Indian Independence?’ • Or “With …., how far was independence granted for economic reasons?” • Decide which title by start of Feb; after this, there’s no going back • Every question demands a multi-causal answer • Every question demands a synoptic answer (must refer to at least 100 years)
Resources • Britain and India textbook – A/S textbook focused on nationalism • VLE – password – Indiansummer • N. Ferguson – Empire • L. James – Raj • I. Copland – India 1885- 1947
Definitions • British Empire – system of political control imposed by a strong power, based in London, on a number of subordinate (peripheral) societies which were controlled directly by agents of the British government and indirectly by locally elected governments, and whose foreign policy was dictated by the British government • Imperialism – the process of establishing rule in the Empire and the nature of that rule within an Empire
Different approaches to the study of empire Metropolitan or ‘top down’ approach • From the point of view of rulers of the Empire e.g. Britain Peripheral or ‘bottom up’ approach • From the point of view of the colonies e.g. India and Gandhi World-view approach • Looks at global developments (social, economic and political) and their effects e.g. Great Depression, WWI, WW2
THE British EMPIRE • What do you know about the British Empire? • Do you have any connection with the British Empire? • Why is it considered important? • Why is it so relevant today? • What was the size of the British Empire and how influential was it?
BRITAIN'S OVERSEAS TERRITORIES TODAY A number of the countries which once made up the British empire are now members of the Commonwealth, a loose association of states which retains the Queen as its head, but over which Britain has no direct control
The debates surrounding Empire • From reading the quotations and seeing the maps what questions do you have in regards to the British Empire? • How Britain, a small country, came to rule a huge empire? • Why did Britain want an empire? • How did Britain control such a large amount of land? • Was the British Empire a force for good or evil? • Why did the British Empire fall (decolonise)?
How was the British Empire Controlled? • Dependencies • Protectorates • Colonies • Dominions • Mandates
How was the EMPIRE CONTROLLED? Dependencies – • small trading posts and naval bases mainly on islands or small territories too small to support themselves, for example Gibraltar and Bermuda Protectorates – • territories acquired through treaty often by request from the local ruler, for example British East Africa (later Kenya) Colonies – • often areas of large scale settlement as the name implies, these territories tended to have more developed rights of local government, sometimes full self-government, for example Kenya colony from 1920 and Southern Rhodesia
How was the EMPIRE CONTROLLED? Dominions – • A self-governing state within the British Empire, with a parliament which controlled domestic affairs, but still under direct British rule for foreign affairs, defence and international trade.Canada, Australia, New Zealand and by 1910 South Africa all acquired this status which was only fully defined in the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the Statute of Westminster in 1931. India was working towards Dominion status from the Government of India Act in 1935 Mandates – • these former colonies of Germany (Tanganyika, German South-West Africa) and Turkey (Iraq, Trans-Jordan and Palestine) were allocated to Britain as a trustee of the League of Nations with the responsibility to carry these territories through to independence
Some additional points • Each area had its own government – normally a Governor-General who ruled with the advice of a council. Back in London the Colonial Secretary made overall decisions • India was unique in having a Viceroy as the government’s representative, and its own Secretary of State and India Office in London. • Collaboration with local rulers and elites was important – such as with the Indian princes, or the rulers of the Malay States • Military power was used to coerce rebellious local populations where British influence in government and law proved insufficient
THE BRITISH EMPIRE • What can we learn about the British Empire from how she controlled her subjects?