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Queronica Q. Quartey,

Right to Food and Climate Change Policy Advisor, ActionAid Ghana during EAA/FECCIWA Advocacy Capacity Strengthening Workshop at African Royal Beach Hotel, Accra, Ghana on 13th – 16th November, 2011

presentation outline
Presentation outline
  • Introduction
    • Background of African Agriculture
    • Human Rights and Right to Adequate Food
    • Origin of CAADP
  • CAADP Goals
  • CAADP Functions
  • CAADP Country Processes
  • CAADP Stakeholders
  • CAADP pillars and pillar institution
  • Value of NSA in the CAADP Process
  • Harnessing advocacy and accountability for agricultural development and right to food

Importance of Agriculture in Africa cannot be over emphasize

  • It is widely recognised as the most important sector in the continent with the potential to lift millions out of chronic poverty, food insecurity and hunger.
  • provides 60% of labour force, 20% of total merchandise export and 20% of Gross Domestic Product(GDP)
introduction contd
Introduction contd.
  • Yet, for decades agriculture has stagnated, suffering from underinvestment, poor policies and incoherent strategies.
  • Meanwhile, more than 250 million Africans remain food insecure.
  • Governments in Africa spend less than 7% of their national budgets on agriculture despite the fact that 75% of poor people live in rural areas.
hunger an issue of human rights
Hunger: An issue of Human Rights
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the Un general Assembly in 1948 has put in motion an international human rights system of civil, political, social and cultural rights that are interrelated, making them mutually reinforcing.
  • In summary, human beings have a right to an adequate standard of living (UNDHR Article 25, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR Article 11)
african charter on human and people s rights
African Charter on Human and People’s Rights
  • Being informed by the UDHR, the African Charter (adopted in June 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58) and
  • Considering the Charter of OAU which stipulates that ‘freedom, equality, justice and dignity are essential objectives for the achievement of the legitimate aspirations of the African peoples”
  • Considering that the enjoyment of rights and freedoms also implies the performance of duties on the part of everyone
  • Guarantees right to work under equitable and satisfactory conditions (Article 15), to best attainable state of physical and mental health (Article 16) and right to education (Article 17) – No specific mention of right to adequate food

US president Roosevelt in his 1944 State of the Union address when advocating for the adoption of an “Economic Bill of Rights” said

  • “We have come to the clear realization of the fact that true individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence. ‘Necessitous men are not free men.’ People who are hungry and out of jobs are the stuff of which dictatorships are made.”
  • The enjoyment of HRs requires, at a minimum, that everyone shall enjoy the necessary subsistence rights – adequate food and nutrition, clothing, housing and the necessary conditions of care.
right to adequate food
Right to Adequate Food
  • According to UDHR Article 25(1), everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing…
  • The general concept of adequate food can be broken into several elements: Food supply should be -
  • Adequate, which means that the types of foodstuffs commonly available (nationally, in local markets and , ultimately at the household level)
  • Culturally acceptable – fit in with prevailing food or dietary culture
  • Cover overall nutritional needs in terms of quantity (energy) and quality (proving all the essential nutrition's, including micronutrients –vitamins and iodine)
  • Safe – free from toxic elements and contaminants) and of
  • Good quality – (taste and texture)
misconception about hrs right to food
Misconception about HRs/Right to Food
  • A basic misconception which has a negative implementation of economic and social rights is that such rights must be provided by government.
  • In the past, this resulted in people opposing economic and social rights, on the assumption that they were costly, undermined creativity, removed incentives and led to an overgrown state apparatus
  • It is now widely recognized that this view resulted from a misunderstanding of the nature of these rights and particularly the corresponding state obligations.
  • A realistic understanding of state obligations must take into account, that the individual is the active subject, not the object, of economic and social development. Most human beings strive to take care of their livelihoods using their own resources – land, capital, labour, knowledge and at the household level, the smallest unit.
  • Draws attention to female/male division of labour, control over production and consumption, kinship arrangements that influence the nature and operation of the family.
state obligations
State obligations
  • Note assumption that human beings, families seek their own solutions to meet their needs
  • Obligations:
  • Primary level – respect the resources owned by individuals and their freedoms for job preference, optimal use of knowledge, alone or in association with others to satisfy needs – not passive in this acknowledgement
  • Secondary level – Active protection against other, more assertive or aggressive subjects, especially more powerful economic interests and there state protection against fraud, unethical behavior in trade and contractual relations, marketing and dumping of dangerous products – protector of civil and political rights: laws, legislation
  • Tertiary level – facilitate opportunities by which the rights listed can be enjoyed or when the other obligations are insufficiently met, to provide such opportunities and thus fulfill the rights

Facilitation of right to food is to take steps to improve measures of production, conservation and distribution of food by making full use of technical and scientific knowledge and by developing or reforming agrarian systems; and provision during emergencies and disasters.

  • Governance is to be able to manage all the levels – creating enabling environments for the individuals and families and the social contracts of manifestoes and development plans.

NEPAD – Agriculture (AU Summit Decision – 2003)

Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP)

A common framework to stimulate and guide the restoration of African agriculture


What CAADP set out to achieve

Socio-economic growth and improved standard of living and clean environment

Wealth creation and support to industrialization

Food Security and Income Generation (Poverty Alleviation)

High and sustainable Agriculture Performance

Target goal of 6% annual growth rate in agriculture productivity and 10% budgetary allocation

caadp approaches
CAADP Approaches

Practically, this means it changing the way business is done by:

  • Improving co-ordination
  • Sharing knowledge, successes and failures
  • Getting actors to encourage one another
  • Promoting joint and separate efforts to achieve the CAADP goals
core functions of the caadp
Core functions of the CAADP
  • Country processes for better investment programmes: The country process is the core of the whole CAADP intervention, as it ‘grounds’ the CAADP values and principles in each country’s own processes and systems.
  • Mobilising partnerships for investment : This core strategic function operates at different levels from national to global, and CAADP has been successful in mobilising resources and new partnerships.
core functions of the caadp cont
Core functions of the CAADP cont...
  • Pushing for commitments: CAADP has a number of instruments for use at different levels to hold governments and partners accountable for their promises.
  • Strategic thinking, positions and scenarios for the future CAADP aims to provide clear African positions on agricultural development issues, including monitoring of the 10% budget commitment, the 6% annual productivity target and peer review system between countries.
  • Advocating for change: CAADP has a major thrust on ‘putting agriculture back on the agenda’ and uses advocacy, lobbying and communication as major instruments.

4. CAADP ~ the country process

Stage 1: Engagement and partnership development

  • Key milestones:
  • Government launch
  • CAADP Roadmap

CAADP DP Task Team joint visit to ADWGs


4. CAADP ~ the country process

  • Key milestones:
  • Stocktaking analysis

Stage 2: Evidence-based planning


4. CAADP ~ the country process

Stage 3: Building alliances for investment

  • Key milestones:
  • Roundtable and compact signing
  • Investment planning and review

CAADP DP Task Team joint visit to ADWGs


4. CAADP ~ the country process

Stage 4: Program implementation, M&E, and peer review

CAADP DP Task Team joint visit to ADWGs



political leadership

CAADP Stakeholders

Continental level

Regional level


Implementation and coordination

National level

Pillar Institutions

technical expertise


coordination of CAADP in MS, regional integration

CAADP Country team

H&A DPs-Reform and review policies to achieve MDGs

caadp pillars
CAADP Pillars

Pillar 1: Extending the area under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems

  • Includes soil fertility management and conservation, agricultural water use and irrigation, and land policy and administration
  • Lead institutions: Dr Elijah Phiri, University of Zambia (,; Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (
caadp pillars contd
CAADP Pillars contd.

Pillar 2: Increasing market access through improved rural infrastructure and other trade related interventions

  • Includes supply chain development, quality control and management system development, export infrastructure, and global trade policies and agreements.
  • Lead institution: Mr Baba Dioum, Conference of Ministers of Agriculture of West and Central Africa (CMA/AOC) (
caadp pillars contd1
CAADP Pillars contd.

Pillar 3: Increasing food supply and reducing hunger across the region by increasing smallholder productivity and improving responses to food emergencies

  • Includes emergency food supply management, nutrition, school feeding schemes, HIV/AIDS support strategies, and attention to priority livelihood sectors.
  • Lead institutions: Prof. Sheryl Hendricks, University of KwaZulu Natal - African Centre for Food Security
caadp pillars contd2
CAADP Pillars contd.

Pillar 4: Improving agricultural research and systems to disseminate appropriate new technologies and increasing the support given to help farmers adopt them

  • Includes technology development, access and dissemination, innovation systems platforms, and building research capacity and training.
  • Lead institution: Dr Monty Jones, Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) (mjones@fara,
country status
  • 42 have engaged
  • 23 countries signed the COMPACT
  • 18 countries have investment plans
  • 13 have undergone technical reviews and have organized business meetings
the role of regional economic communities
The Role of Regional Economic Communities
  • Each Regional Economic Community (REC) establishes its own priorities based on the continent-wide Pillars. They are supposed to lead CAADP from a political point of view. Increasingly, the RECs are drivers of change in the continent.
  • In reality, there has been various levels of progress and engagement by the RECs. By June 2008, all RECs were working at various levels towards the CAADP Round Table processes. By December 2008, at least a dozen countries will have signed their CAADP Compacts. However, the most notable engagement has been realised by COMESA and ECOWAS. The types of support that ECA have contributed to includes:
  • Guiding countries in how best to implement CAADP
  • Providing funds to support the roll-out of CAADP in regions and countries
  • Monitoring and evaluation to check progress towards CAADP targets in the region
  • Providing technical and financial support to help member states to produce CAADP compacts
  • Coordinating the regional implementation of the CAADP framework
  • Designing and implementing the CAADP Compact in the region
  • Ensuring that the CAADP principles of inclusiveness, peer review and policy efficiency are adhered to
ecowas agricultural policy ecowap
  • Within the CAADP framework, ECOWAS was mandated to support and coordinate the implementation of the programme in the West Africa region
  • ECOWAS developed the regional agricultural policy (ECOWAP) - a framework of reference that provides the principles and objectives assigned to the agricultural sector and guides interventions in agricultural development in the region
  • The agenda is an integral part of national efforts to promote agricultural sector growth and economic development. ECOWAP/CAADP action plan developed for 2005 – 2010 It is The ECOWAP is a framework of
what value nsa add to the caadp process church groupings as well
What value NSA add to the CAADP process – Church groupings as well
  • Putting CAADP plans into action
  • Raising awareness and engaging NSAs
  • Raising awareness and mobilizing the public from national to community level
  • Knowledge generation and sharing best practices
  • Advocacy to governments, donors and other stakeholders to support the CAADP process
  • Capacity development of national and regional stakeholders
  • Increasing CAADP engagement with women & youth
proposed engagement processes
Proposed engagement processes
  • Development of toolkit
  • Develop guidelines for boosting NSA participation in CAADP processes
  • Conduct review and analysis of the CAADP framework and investment plans - to ensure they include youth, gender and climate change concerns
  • Conduct capacity building and organise dialogues between governments and NSAs
  • Secure funding to conduct NSA dialogues
  • Assessment of investment plans – people centred or sourcing funds?
  • Budget tracking vs. policy recommendations
  • Involvement of the masses
  • The signing of MOUs