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Annual Blood Borne Pathogen Training (Healthcare & Research version). Environmental Health & Safety Department Jay Abbt Daron White. Annual update for PVAMU employees with potential exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM ).

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annual blood borne pathogen training healthcare research version

Annual Blood Borne Pathogen Training (Healthcare & Research version)

Environmental Health & Safety Department

Jay Abbt

Daron White

slide2

Annual update for PVAMU employees with potential exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM)

slide3

The following program meets the training requirements set forth by the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard.

  • This training module is a self-study designed to provide a review of the following:
    • Bloodborne pathogens (BBP)
    • Modes of transmission of BBP
    • Exposure control principles and practices as they relate to bloodborne pathogens
bloodborne pathogens standard
Bloodborne Pathogens Standard
  • OSHA (1991)- “Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens” (29 CFR 1910.1030)
  • Revised in 2001 in response to the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act

Goal: eliminate or minimize occupational exposure to Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and other bloodborne pathogens

what are bloodborne pathogens bbp
What are Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP)?
  • Any pathogenic microorganisms or OPIM (other potentially infectious materials) present in human blood that can cause disease in humans.
  • Primary focus in our setting is HBV, HCV, and HIV- which will be detailed further in this presentation.
  • Other examples of BBP include microorganisms that cause:
      • malaria, syphilis, babesiosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, arboviral infections, relapsing fever, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, HTLV-1, and viral hemorrhagic fever.
slide6

We know blood and blood products are included in this BBP scope, but what are Other Potentially Infectious Materials (OPIM)?

opim includes the following
OPIM includes the following:
  • Synovial, pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal fluid
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Semen
  • Vaginal secretions
  • Amniotic fluid
  • Saliva (in dental procedures)
  • Any unfixed tissue or organ from a human
  • Any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood
  • All body fluid where it is difficult to distinguish between body fluids
  • Cell or tissue cultures that were HIV or HBV infected
hbv hiv hcv
HBV, HIV, HCV

Let’s look at each of the BBP of concern in detail

hepatitis b virus hbv
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
  • Hepatitis B is caused by a virus that attacks the liver and can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure, or death.
  • In 2006, an estimated 46,000 people were newly infected with HBV. It is estimated that 1.25 million Americans are chronically infected.
hepatitis b virus
Hepatitis B Virus
  • HBV infection is a well recognized occupational risk for healthcare personnel.
  • The average volume of blood inoculated during a needlestick injury with a 22-gauge needle is approximately 1 µl, a quantity sufficient to contain up to 100 infectious doses of HBV.
  • HBV can survive outside the body at least 7 days and still be capable of causing infection.
hepatitis b virus1
Hepatitis B Virus
  • About 30% of infected persons have no sign or symptoms of HBV.
  • If symptoms occur, they usually begin to appear on the average of 12 weeks (range 9-21 weeks) after exposure to hepatitis B virus.
  • If you have symptoms, they might include:
    • jaundice • abdominal discomfort
    • dark urine • clay-colored bowel movements
    • joint pain • fatigue
    • loss of appetite • nausea
hbv is preventable a safe effective vaccine is available
HBV IS PREVENTABLE!A safe & effective vaccine is available.
  • Hepatitis B vaccine prevents hepatitis B infection and its serious consequences.
  • If the vaccine is administered before infection, it prevents the development of the disease and the carrier state in almost all individuals.
  • Hepatitis B vaccine consists of a series of three injections – initial, one a month later, and one six months from the first.
  • Available FREE of charge from employer for high-risk employees
what treatment is available for hbv
What treatment is available for HBV?
  • In the occupational setting, multiple doses of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin initiated within 1 week following percutaneous exposure to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive blood provides an estimated 75% protection from HBV infection.
  • There is no cure available for acute HBV infection. There are antiviral drugs available for the treatment of chronic HBV infection.
slide14
HIV
  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Once a person has been infected with HIV, it may be many years before AIDS actually develops.
  • HIV kills or damages cells in the body’s immune system, gradually destroying the body’s ability to fight infection and certain cancers.
slide15
HIV

As of December 2001, occupational exposure to HIV has resulted in 57 documented cases of HIV seroconversion among healthcare personnel (HCP) in the United States.

At the end of 2003, an estimated 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 persons in the United States were living with HIV/AIDS, with 24-27% undiagnosed and unaware of their HIV infection.

slide16
HIV
  • Some infected with HIV have no symptoms for up to ten years.
  • Within a month or two after exposure to the virus some experience flu-like illness such as:
      • fever, headache, fatigue, weight loss, diarrhea, night sweats, enlarged lymph nodes
  • These symptoms usually disappear within a week to a month and are often mistaken for those of another viral infection. During this period, the individual is very infectious.
slide17
HIV
  • The average risk for HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood has been estimated to be approximately 0.3%.
  • HIV does not survive well outside the body, making the possibility of environmental transmission remote.
hiv no cure or vaccine available
HIV- no cure or vaccine available
  • Treatment protocols from the U.S. Public Health Service have been developed using antiretroviral agents from five classes of drugs to treat HIV infection. These include:
      • the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and a single fusion inhibitor.
  • The recommendations provide guidance to effectively suppress the virus on the basis of HIV transmission risk represented by the exposure.
slide19
HIV
  • Side effects associated with the use of antiviral drugs can be severe.
  • The drug regimen is not a cure for AIDS, but it has greatly improved the health of many people with AIDS and it reduces the amount of virus circulating in the blood to nearly undetectable levels.
  • Researchers, however, have shown that HIV remains present in hiding places such as the lymph nodes even in people who have been treated.
slide20
HCV
  • Hepatitis C virus is a liver disease
  • After a needlestick or sharps exposure to HCV positive blood , about 1.8% healthcare workers will get infected with HCV.
  • Estimated 4.1 million (1.6%) Americans have been infected with HCV, of whom 3.2 million are chronically infected.
slide21
HCV

Long term effects of HCV:

  • Chronic infection: 75%-85% of infected persons
  • Cirrhosis: 20% of chronically infected persons
  • Deaths from chronic liver disease: 1%-5% of infected persons may die
  • Leading indication for liver transplant
slide22
HCV
  • jaundice
  • fatigue
  • dark urine
  • abdominal pain 
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea

80% of persons infected have no signs or symptoms for HCV. When present, symptoms may include:

slide23
HCV
  • Currently, there is no cure for hepatitis C, and no effective vaccine is currently available.
  • National recommendations for the control of occupational exposure to HCV rely more on the prevention of transmission. In addition, several blood tests that measure either antibodies to HCV or HCV-RNA are available for hepatitis C screening. These tests are useful in determining current immune status and monitoring ongoing infection.
how does a bloodborne infection occur
How does a bloodborne infection occur?
  • How might I get exposed in the workplace?
slide25

Chain of Infection

Infection Control = Break any link in the chain

modes of transmission of bbp
Modes of transmission of BBP
  • Percutaneous - the direct inoculation of infectious material by piercing through the skin barrier (needlestick or other accidental injury with a sharp, contaminated object)

Penetration by contaminated sharps is the most common mode of transmission of bloodborne pathogens in the workplace.

modes of transmission of bbp1
Modes of transmission of BBP
  • Direct inoculation - exposure of blood or OPIM to pre-existing lesions, cuts, abrasions, or rashes (dermatitis) provides a route of entry into the body.
  • Mucous membrane contact - splashing blood or serum into an individual's unprotected eyes, nose, or mouth in clinical or laboratory settings poses a genuine risk of infection.
duties that might put you at risk for an occupational exposure
Duties that might put you at risk for an occupational exposure:
  • Perform drawing of blood from human patients or animals
  • Process blood for experimentation
  • Work with human or animal blood or body fluids
  • Use unfixed tissue in preparations or experimentation
  • Work in an area where HIV or HBV research is being performed or produced
  • Clean glassware contaminated with blood or OPIM
duties that might put you at risk for an occupational exposure1
Duties that might put you at risk for an occupational exposure:
  • Dispose of waste contaminated with blood or OPIM
  • Transport blood or OPIM
  • Work in a laboratory where equipment or work benches can become contaminated
  • Handle containers of infectious wastes
  • Clean blood spills, including dried blood
  • Handle laundry that contains sharps or is soiled with blood or OPIM
  • Perform lifesaving procedures
risk factors for infection
Risk Factors for Infection
  • Pathogenicity of organism
  • Dose (how much blood or infectious agent)
  • Route of entry (injection vs. contact with mucous membrane or open wound)
  • Host susceptibility
  • Work practices
occupational exposure prevention
Occupational Exposure Prevention

The risk of occupational exposure can be minimized or eliminated using a combination of engineering and work practice controls, personal protective clothing and equipment, training, medical surveillance, HBV vaccination, warning signs or labels, and other provisions described in this training section.  

standard precautions
Standard Precautions
  • Guidelines to decrease the risk of occupational exposure to blood or body fluids
  • A system of infection control which assumes that every direct contact with body fluids is infectious and requires every employee exposed to direct contact with body fluids to be protected as though such body fluids were infected with a bloodborne pathogen
  • Provides adequate protection against bloodborne infections from both humans and animals
employee responsibilities
Employee Responsibilities
  • Completing training/orientation as required
  • Following the Exposure Control Plan and the Standard Precautions Policy
  • Using work practices, engineering controls, and personal protective equipment as outlined in the Exposure Control Plan
  • Obtaining the HBV vaccine or signing the declination form
employee responsibilities1
Employee Responsibilities
  • Reporting exposure incidents to their supervisor and assisting the supervisor in completing First Report of Injury Form
  • Pursuing follow-up care after an occupational exposure

Failure to follow these policies could result in disciplinary action.

exposure control plan
Exposure Control Plan
  • Written plan provided to eliminate or minimize occupational exposure to BBP.
  • PVAMU Safety Manual
  • Can be obtained from EHS website.
  • Reviewed annually.
exposure control plan1
Exposure Control Plan

Updates include:

  • Changes in technology that reduce/eliminate exposure (engineering controls)
  • Annual documentation of consideration and implementation of safer medical devices
  • Input from non-managerial employees (who are responsible for direct patient care) in selecting and evaluating safer medical devices
engineering controls
Engineering Controls
  • Sharps with Engineered Sharps Injury Protection (SESIP)– a non-needle sharp or needle with a built-in safety feature or mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident
  • Examples include:

Self-sheathing syringe

more examples of engineered sharps safety devices
More Examples of Engineered Sharps Safety Devices

In use

After use

Retractable needle technology

Retractable lancets

Self-blunting needles

Add-ons (needle covers)

engineering controls1
Engineering Controls
  • Needleless Systems = Device that does not use a needle for:
    • collection of body fluids
    • administration of medication/fluids
    • any other procedure with potential percutaneous

exposure to a contaminated sharp

work practice controls
Work Practice Controls
  • Contaminated needles/sharps shall not be bent, recapped or removed unless there is no feasible alternative or if required by a specific medical procedure
  • Such bending, recapping, or removal must be done though use of mechanical device or a one-handed technique
  • Use puncture-resistant sharps
  • container for disposal of sharps
work practice controls1
Work Practice Controls
  • No food/drink/smoking, handling of contact lenses, or application of cosmetics in work area where there is potential for exposure
  • Minimize splashing, spraying, spattering, and generation of droplets
  • No mouth pipetting
  • Use secondary containment for transport, shipping, or storage of containers
  • Decontaminate surfaces and equipment
handwashing
Handwashing
  • Employees must wash their hands immediately or as soon as feasible after removal of gloves or other personal protective equipment.
  • Wash as soon as possible if gross contamination occurs
  • Alternate methods:
    • Antiseptic towelettes
    • Waterless handwashing gels
personal protective equipment ppe
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE is appropriate only if it does not permit blood/OPIM to pass through and/or reach the employee’s clothing, skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes under normal use.

personal protective equipment
Personal Protective Equipment
  • Gloves (latex or nonlatex)
    • When to use them:
      • when there is reasonable anticipation

of employee hand contact with blood, OPIM, mucous membranes, or non-intact skin

      • when performing vascular access procedures
      • when handling or touching contaminated surfaces or items.
    • Remove prior to leaving the work area and discard as biohazard waste
latex allergies
Latex Allergies

Latex gloves have proven effective in preventing transmission of many infectious diseases to health care workers. However, for some workers, exposures to latex may result in allergic reactions.

For further reading:

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/latex/

http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/latexallergy/index.html

personal protective equipment1
Personal Protective Equipment
  • Gowns, aprons, fluid-resistant clothing
  • Face shields, eye protection (safety glasses, goggles)
  • Respirators
  • Surgical caps, shoe covers
do not rely only on ppe for protection

Even though the use of PPE is very important in controlling exposure to BBPs, it is your last line of defense against exposure if engineering and work practice controls fail.

Do not rely only on PPE for protection.

training
Training
  • Training is required:
    • at the time of initial employment and assignment
    • (or transfer) to job tasks where occupational exposure may occur
    • within one year of the employee's previous training and annually thereafter (if the employee remains in an at-risk position)
    • when changes such as modification of tasks or procedures or institution of new tasks or procedures affect the employee's potential for occupational exposures, and as new standards for safe work practices evolve.
hbv vaccination
HBV Vaccination
  • FREE to employee - paid for by your department if you are at high-risk for exposure
  • If you initially refuse the vaccine, you may change your mind later and still receive it.
warning signs and labels
Warning Signs and Labels
  • Fluorescent orange or orange-red label
  • with word “Biohazard” and biohazard symbol in contrasting color must be provided on:
      • Containers of regulated waste
      • Refrigerators/freezers used to store blood/OPIM
      • Containers used to store, transport, or ship blood/OPIM
      • Contaminated equipment
  • Red bags may be substituted for biohazard labels on biohazardous waste bags.
housekeeping sharps disposal
Housekeeping: Sharps Disposal
  • Keep sharps container upright,
  • readily available in the work area
  • Never place sharps into the regular trash
  • Use a leak-proof, puncture-resistant
  • sharps container labeled with the biohazard symbol
  • Do not overfill - dispose of sharps container as biohazard waste when it is 2/3 full
housekeeping decontamination
Housekeeping: Decontamination

Work surfaces should be decontaminated with an appropriate disinfectant such as 10% bleach solution or an EPA approved disinfectant after completion of procedures, immediately or as soon as feasible when surfaces are overtly contaminated or after any spill, and at the end of the work shift.

slide55

What to Do: Post-Exposure

  • Wash exposed area with soap and water for 5 minutes
    • if eye or mucous membrane contact, flush with sterile water or saline for 5 minutes
  • Report the incident to your supervisor, EHS AND Health Center immediately.
  • Complete First Report of Injury Form
  • Report to Health enter for medical evaluation
post exposure general medical surveillance
Post-Exposure: General Medical Surveillance
  • Any bloodborne pathogens exposure incident is an event for which immediate attention must be sought, as the effectiveness of prophylaxis depends on the immediacy of its delivery.
  • Seek medical attention in the same manner that it would be sought should any occupational injury occur (e.g., emergency room, physician's office, urgent care clinic). You should not use your personal insurance when receiving care for an occupational injury/exposure.
slide57
Don’t delay in reporting for medical care - early treatment can mean the difference between life and death!
recordkeeping
Recordkeeping
  • Injury Log
    • Maintained by Human Resources in cooperation with Environmental Health & Safety Department.
    • Contains necessary documented information for each needlestick/sharp related incident:
      • type and brand of device involved
      • department or area of incident
      • description of incident
  • Training records – 3 years
slide59

Recordkeeping

  • Confidential medical records – duration
  • of employment + 30 years
  • EPINet (Exposure Prevention Information Network) forms
    • helps to track trends, problem areas, types of medical devices, etc. related to BBP occupational exposure incidents and injuries
  • First Report of Injury and Illness Form
slide60

REMEMBER:

Don't wait.

Immediately report all exposures.

You may have to make a quick decision about starting an antiretroviral agent as prophylaxis. The time frame for beginning this treatment is critical. Reporting is also essential for establishing a claim for Workers' Compensation benefits.

PVAMU’s Workers’ Compensation Specialist can be reached at (936) 261-1728

summary of post exposure employee responsibilities
Summary of Post-Exposure Employee Responsibilities
  • Wash/flush exposed injury area for 5 minutes.

2. Promptly report the incident to your supervisor and the Bloodborne Pathogens Coordinator.

3. Complete the First Report of Injury forms.

4. Report to Health Clinic for medical evaluation.

reminder
*Reminder*
  • PVAMU encourages you to contact you’re the Health Center, Environmental Health & Safety or supervisor for questions, comments, or suggestions.

Health Center (936) 261-1400

Env. Health & Safety (936) 261-1745 or 1746

Workers Compensation (936) 261-1728

why was this training so vital
Why was this training so vital?
  • Healthcare and research personnel are at a great risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
  • Through information and awareness PVAMU aims to minimize any risk to our employees and continue the commitment to safety in the workplace.
quiz required for training credit
Quiz required for Training credit
  • Thank you for completing the self-study review session. Please click below to assess your learning and receive credit for participation.
  • Take Quiz